75 - 81
Adjectives of the second declension are those which have two terminations only. They are declined like nouns of the third declension, but have -i (not -e) in the ablative singular, and -ium (not -um) in the genitive plural, thus:─
  mītis mītis mīte, mild.
Mas./Fem. Neut.
Nom. mīt-is mīt-e
Gen. mīt-is mīt-is
Dat. mīt-i mīt-i
Acc. mīt-em mīt-e
Abl. mīt-i mīt-i
Voc. mīt-is mīt-e
Nom. mīt-ēs mīt-ia
Gen. mīt-ium mīt-ium
Dat. mīt-ibus mīt-ibus
Acc. mīt-ēs mīt-ia
Abl. mīt-ibus mīt-ibus
Voc. mīt-ēs mīt-ia
 (1) Comparatives (see Rem.(5) §1 Lesson 9), are adjectives of two terminations, and consequently belong to the second declension. Tbey are likewise declined like nouns of the third declension, but have -um (not -ium) in the genitive plural, and -a (not -ia) in the neuter plural, thus:─
  mītior mītior mītius, milder.
Mas./Fem. Neut.
Nom. mītior mītius
Gen. mītōr-is mītōr-is
Dat. mītōr-i mītōr-i
Acc. mītōr-em mītius
Abl. mītōr-e, -i mītōr-e, -i
Voc. mītior mītius
Nom. mītōr-ēs mītōr-a
Gen. mītōr-um mītōr-um
Dat. mītōr-ibus mītōr-ibus
Acc. mītōr-ēs mītōr-a
Abl. mītōr-ibus mītōr-ibus
Voc. mītōr-ēs mītōr-a
Comparatives have either -e or -i in the ablative singular, but -e is most common.
 (2) The comparative plus, gen. pluris, more, has plura in the nom. plu., and plurium in the genitive plural, but plus having the same form for all three genders, properly belongs to adjectives of the third declension.
What adjectives belong to the second declension?
How are adjectives of two terminations declined?
What is the neuter termination of adjectives of the second declension?
Whether do the adjectives of this declension make the ablative singular in -e or -i?
Decline the adjective omnis -e, all.
In what does the declension of comparatives differ from that of other adjectives of this declension?
What is the neuter termination of comparatives?
Decline the comparative excelsior, highier.
What adjectives of three terminations belong to this declension? (See Rem.(1) Lesson 68).
 lēnis -e, gentle.
 tristis -e, sad, serious.
 cōmis -e, sociable.
 agrestis -e, rural, rustic.
 mōbilis -e, moveable, active, quick.
 puerīlis -e, boyish, childish, puerile.
 familiāris -e, familiar, household.
 omnis -e, any, every other.
 difficilis -e, obstinate.
 facilis -e, easy, light.
 incrēdibilis -e, marvellous.
 stabilis -e, firm, solid, stable.
 insalūbris -e, unwholesome.
 innumerābilis -e, numberless, no end of.
 celestis -e, of or belonging to the sky, celestial.
 septentriōnālis -e, north, northern.
 segnis -e, sluggish.
 imbēcillis -e, feeble, debilitated.
 sōlennis -e, occurring at stated intervals, appointed, annual.
 acer acre, sharp, fierce.
 acris acre, sharp, fierce.
 terrestris -e, of or belonging to the earth, land, terrestrial.
 Homines sunt mortales.
  Men are mortal.
 Aurum omnes colunt.
  All (men) worship gold.
 Omnia mors poscit.
  Death requires all (things).
 Fortes fortuna adjuvat.
  Fortune favours the brave.
 Da locum melioribus.
  Give place to (your) betters.
 Carissime omnium amicorum!
  Dearest of all friends!
 Parasne acrem militiam?
  Art thou preparing sharp warfare?
 Molliore reclinavi sponda.
  I leant back on a remarkably soft couch.
 Deteriores sumus licentia.
  We are all the worse for license.
 Acres venabor apros.
  I shall hunt fierce wild boars.
 Certioribus testibus rem confirmabimus.
  We shall confirm the matter by more trustworthy witnesses.
 Suaviora unguenta puella poposcit.
  The girl asked for sweeter perfumes.
 Puerorum ingenia sunt docilia.
  The capacities of boys are docile.
 Beati boni sunt omnes.
  All good (men) are happy.
 Cantus dulces sunt grati.
  Sweet songs are pleasing.
 Homines mori debent omnes.
  All men must die.
 Omnia tempus edax depascit.
  Devouring time eats up all (things).
 Fortia taurorum corpora sunt.
  The bodies of bulls are strong.
 Omnium rerum vicissitudo est.
  There is a variation of (or in) all things.
 Virides occultant spineta lacertos.
  Brakes hide green lizards.
 Classis felicioribus auspiciis portu navigavit.
  The fleet has sailed from the harbour with rather happy omens.
 Dulciorem non possemus cantum audire.
  We could not hear a sweeter song.
 Miseris spes grata est mortalibus.
  Hope is cheering to wretched mortals.
 Virtutum omnium pietas est fundamentum.
  Piety is the basis of all the virtues.
 Patriae solum omnibus carum est.
  The soil of one's country is dear to all.
 Medicamentorum salutarium plenissimi sunt prata.
  The fields are full of beneficial medicaments.
 Celsae graviore casu turres decidunt.
  Lofty towers fall with a heavy crash.
 Phoenices nautarum peritissimi olim erant omnium.
  The Phoenicians were formerly the most skilful of all mariners.
 Sylvae nunc occultiores latebras belluae quaerunt.
  The wild beasts of the forests now seek darker hiding-places.
 Sapientiores quam milites duces esse debent.
  Generals ought to be more intelligent than (common) soldiers.
 Philosophia mater est omnium bonarum artium.
  Philosophy is the mother of all the useful arts.
 Nocentissima omnium rerum res est calumnia.
  Calumny is the most hurtful (thing) of all things.
 Magna non semper poemata sunt dulcia.
  Great poems are not always sweet.
 Dulcis agrestium virorum lenis somnus est.
  Sweet is the gentle sleep of rustic men.
 Simulacrum Dianae singulari fuit opera artificioque factum.
  The statue of Diana (was) executed with singular workmanship and skill.
 O vita, misero longa: felici brevis!
  O life, to the wretched (thou art) long: to the fortunate short!
 modus -i m., measure, way, manner.
 dissidium -i n., dissension, disunion, a breech.
 Sextus -i m., a Roman commander.
 Antiochus -i m., a king of Syria.
 improbus -i m., an offender.
 pyrum -i n., a pear.
 auxilium -ii n., aid, assistance.
 subsidium -ii n., aid, assistance.
 servitium -ii n., bondage, service.
 ministerium -ii n., attendance.
 Pythagorēus -i m., Pythagorean.
 Armenius -ii m., an Armenian.
 Aedui -ōrum m.pl., a people of Gaul.
 Helvētii -ōrum m.pl., the Swiss.
 Saguntum -i n., a city of Spain.
 Pontus -i m., (or Pontus Euxinus), the Black Sea, and also poetically any other sea.
 jūgerum -i n., an acre.
 tegumentum -i n., a covering, or screen.
 sacrifīcium -ii n., a sacrifice.
 animus -i m., feeling.
 arbitrium -ii n., an award, also the will or pleasure.
 capitōlium -ii n., a citadel, also the capitol, a fortified eminence in Rome, on which stood the temple of Jupiter.
A cruel war.
  Bellum crudele.
Cruel wars.
  Bella crudelia.
Mortal breasts.
  Pectora mortalia.
Greater wounds.
  Vulnera majora.
Flowers whiter than snow.
  Flores quam nix candidiores.
A fountain of sweet water.
  Fons aquae dulcis.
Thou most daring of all conspirators!
  Omnium conjuratorum audacissime!
All are pious and upright men.
  Omnes pii sunt honestique homines.
The sweet songs of the groves.
  Nemorum dulcia carmina.
A man of remarkably keen judgment.
  Vir acrioris judicii.
All men are mortal.
  Omnes homines sunt mortales.
Some negotiations are difficult.
  Difficilia sunt nonnulla negotia.
All graceful girls are not silly.
  Non omnes puellae venustae sunt ineptae.
The souls of men are immortal.
  Hominum animi sunt immortales.
The joys of men are brief.
  Hominum gaudia sunt brevia.
Death is common to every age.
  Omni aetati mors est communis.
Deeds are more difficult than words.
  Difficiliora facta quam verba.
All servants are not lazy.
  Non omnes servi sunt pigri.
All animals are not cruel.
  Non omnia animalia sunt crudelia.
All Cicero's writings are useful.
  Ciceronis scripta utilia sunt omnia.
Hope is charming to mortals.
  Spes grata est mortalibus.
Folly is the mother of all evils.
  Omnium malorum stultitia est mater.
Croesus was the richest of all kings.
  Croesus regum locupletissimus erat omnium.
Socrates was the most innocent of all men.
  Hominum Socrates innocentissimus erat omnium.
The Vestal virgins were priestesses of Vesta.
  Virgines vestales Vestae sacerdotes fuerunt.
Generals are commonly more intelligent than soldiers.
  Sapientiores quam milites plerumque sunt duces.
Sea animals are larger than land ones.
  Maris animalia majora quam terrestria sunt.
Severe parents are often better than lenient ones.
  Parentes severi saepe meliores sunt quam parentes lenes.
Your brothers are more learned by far than mine.
  Fratres vestri quam mei longe doctiores sunt.
Lions are a great deal stronger than stags.
  Quam cervi leones multo fortiores sunt.
Wounds are by no means unseemly ornaments of brave soldiers.
  Fortium militum vulnera haudquaquam indecori sunt ornatus.
Is this the picture? ─ Yes, certainly.1
  Haec tabula est? ─ Nil verius.
 (1) Here, "yes, certainly," will be best rendered by "nothing more true."
 irridēmur, we are laughed at.
 dēcipimur, we are deceived.
 excitantur, they are drawn.
 vituperantur, they are abused.
 numerantur, they are reckoned.
 efficiātur, he, she, or it is made.
 rīdentur, they are laughed at.
 retinentur, they are held in.
 videntur, they seem, or appear.
 reguntur, they are governed, or regulated.
 exercentur, they are engaged.
 dīcuntur, they are said.
 involvuntur, they are swallowed up.
 redduntur, they are pronounced.
 dīmittuntur, they are dismissed.
 dēpōnuntur, they are laid down.
 conscrībuntur, they are set down.
 excitētur, he, she, or it is excited.
 habentur, they are kept.
 dēcipiuntur, they are deceived.
 expleātur, he, she, or it is realised.
 intrōmittātur, he, she, or it may be let in.
 rōgemur, we are asked.
 amentur, they should be loved.
 videantur, they seem.
 audiantur, they may be heard.
 Res militaris regi scientia utilis est.
  A knowledge of the art of war is useful to a king.
 Una omnibus est mortis necessitas.
  The necessity of death is the same to all.
 Atticus civilibus fluctibus non se committeret.
  Atticus would not engage in civil broils.
 Omnium Graecarum Syracusae maxima pulcherrimaque olim fuit urbium.
  Syracuse was formerly the largest and most beautiful of Greek cities.
 Graecorum omnium honestissimus et sapientissimus erat Socrates.
  Socrates was the most upright and wisest of all the Greeks.
 Omnes fide atque probitate gentes Britanni superarunt.
  The Britons surpassed all other nations in faith and probity.
 Rei familiaris jactura damnorum nequaquam est minimum.
  The loss of a familiar object is by no means the slightest of annoyances.
 Turpes vero accusatores pestis sunt generis humani.
  Base accusers are indeed a pest to the human race.
 Omnia Dei praecepta bona sunt et utilia.
  All God's commandments are good and useful.
 Vivite fortes1 fortiaque adversis apponite pectora rebus.
  Live brave (as brave men) and present unshaken breasts to adversity.
 Serpens, sitis, ardor, arenae, ardua, dulcia2 sunt virtuti.
  The serpent, thirst, fiery heat, burning sands, and hardships, are sweet to manliness.
 Justitia virtus est, omnium virtutum domina et regina.
  Justice is a virtue, the mistress and queen of all virtues.
 Omnes homines honesti sunt laudandi, mali autem vituperandi.
  All honest men are to be praised, but the bad to be censured.
 Hominum quidem corpora sunt mortalia, animi autem immortales.
  The bodies of men are mortal, but the souls immortal.
 Omnium animi immortales sunt, sed bonorum fortiumque divini.
  The souls of all are immortal, but of the good and brave divine.
 Suevorum gens longe maxima et bellicosissima erat Germanorum omnium.
  The Suevian people were by far the greatest and most warlike of all the German nations.
 Excellentissimum omnium regum Persarum erant Cyrus et Darius Hystaspis filius.
  The most excellent of all the Persian kings were Cyrus and Darius the son of Hystaspes.
 Non omnes matres sunt bonae, neque omnes patres boni.
  All mothers are not good, neither are all fathers good.
 Omnes homines qui vivere volunt, edere et bibere debent.
  All men who desire to live, must eat and drink.
 Non docti sunt omnes, qui legere et scribere possunt.
  All who can read and write, are not learned men.
 (1) Vivite fortes, live brave, i.e., as brave men. Adjectives are sometimes used in this way adverbially, particularly by the poets.
 (2) Dulcia sunt virtuti, are sweet to manliness. Here the neuter plural dulcia, agrees with the masculine and feminine nouns that precede. This only occurs when the adjective qualifies inanimate nouns, (See also agreement of adjectives, Rem.(2) Lesson 69).
 putābar, I was reckoned.
 putābāris, thou wast reckoned, you were reckoned.
 putābātur, he was reckoned.
 putābāmur, we were reckoned.
 putābāmini, you were reckoned.
 putābantur, they were reckoned.
 docēbar, I was taught.
 docēbāris, thou wast taught, you were taught.
 docēbātur, he was taught.
 docēbāmur, we were taught.
 docēbāmini, you were taught.
 docēbantur, they were taught.
 appellābātur, he, she, or it was called.
 bibēbātur, he, she, it, or there was drinking.
 ludēbātur, he, she, it, or there was playing or gaming.
 colēbātur, he, she, or it was adored.
 vīsēbātur, he, she, or it was visited.
 vidēbantur, they were seen.
The richer than I are not always happier than I.
  Ditiores quam ego non semper feliciores sunt.
The judgments of posterity are generally the more just.
  Plerumque justiora sunt posteritatis judicia.
The dolphin is the swiftest of all creatures.
  Velocissimus animalium delphinus est omnium.
The English are more sluggish than the French.
  Segniores Angli quam Galli sunt.
The Romans were more powerful than the Carthaginians.
  Potentiores quam Carthaginienses Romani.
All kings are not always just and humane.
  Omnes reges non semper justi humanique sunt.
The wisest of men are sometimes capricious.
  Hominum sapientissimi interdum leves sunt.
My neighbour is a man of the keenest discernment.
  Vicinus meus homo acerrimi est ingenii.
Alexander was a great king but a passionate and vain man.
  Rex Alexander erat magnus, homo autem vehemens et inanis.
Rich men are often more wretched than even very poor men.
  Miseriores quam et pauperes homines sunt locupletiores.
Poor men are generally happier than over-rich men.
  Beatiores plerumque sunt homines pauperes quam nimis locupletes.
Barren fields are not so valuable as fertile ones.
  Agri steriles non sunt tam pretiosi quam fertiles.
The colder the climate, the more ferocious the wolves.
  Quanto frigidior plaga, tanto ferociores lupi.
All the prayers of the wretched young men were vain.
  Miserorum omnes preces inanes erant juvenum.
Diseases of the body are grievous, but those of the mind are more grievous.
  Corporis morbi sunt perniciosi, animi autem perniciosiores.
The rules are difficult, but the examples are more difficult.
  Praecepta sunt difficilia, difficiliora vero exempla.
All books are not to be read.
  Omnes libri legendi non sunt.
If books are not useful, they should not be read.
  Si libri non sunt utiles, legendi non sunt.
The approval of better men is the best fruit of labour.
  Meliorum hominum laudatio laboris optimus est fructus.
The flowers of Sicily are more beautiful than those of England.
  Multo pulchriores Siciliae quam Angliae sunt flores.
The senses of some animals are keener than those of men.
  Nonnullorum animalium sensus acriores quam hominum sunt.
 accūsātus sum, I was1 or have been accused.
 accūsātus es, thou wast or hast been accused, you were or have been accused.
 accūsātus est, he was or has been accused.
 accūsāti2 sumus, we were or have been accused.
 accūsāti estis, you were or have been accused.
 accūsāti sunt, they were or have been accused.
 datus sum,3 I was or have been given.
 creātus sum, I was or have been created.
 vocātus sum, I was or have been called.
 habitus sum, I was or have been reckoned.
 pulsus sum, I was or have been driven away.
 raptus sum, I was or have been carried away.
 victus sum, I was or have been vanquished.
 vectus sum, I was or have been conveyed.
 missus sum, I was or have been sent.
 conjunctus sum, I was or have been allied.
 nutrītus sum, I was or have been brought up.
 (1) We have already seen (Rem.(1) Lesson 66), that a present form of to be, when followed by a past participle, stands for a corresponding form of the Latin passive voice. So when a past form of the auxiliary occurs under similar circumstances, it is rendered by the corresponding form of the Latin imperfect passive, if a repeated or unfinished act is implied (see Rem.(3) Lesson 57); and, by the corresponding form of the Latin perfect passive, if the act is isolated, completely past, or if an indefinite period of past time is expressed. (See Rem.(1) Lesson 18).
 (2) The participle of the Latin perfect tenses, is virtually an adjective, and agrees with the nominative in number, gender, and case; thus, if a male speaks, he says accūsātus sum, if a female speaks, she says accūsāta sum, and if a neuter noun is the subject accūsātum est; so in the plural accūsāti, accūsātae, accūsāta, according as the nominative is one or otljcr of the three genders.
 (3) Datus sum, is declined like accūsātus sum, and so are all other perfect passive tenses.
 Regum omnium Alexander ille magnus erat bellicosissimus.
  Alexander the Great was the most warlike of all kings.
 Doctiores quam aliae gentes Graeci fuisse videntur, Romani autem fortiores.
  The Greeks appear to have been more learned than other nations, but the Romans more brave.
 Senes infirmi debilesque sunt, juvenes plerumque forti ac robusti.
  Old men are weak and infirm, young men generally robust and strong.
 Futura meliora esse possunt quam nunc sunt tempora.
  Future times may be better than they are now.
 Plerumque bonorum auctorum libri sunt quidem utiles, nec tamen semper.
  The books of good authors are generally useful, but not always.
 Librorum auctores noxiorum vituperandi sunt; librorum autem utilium auctores sunt laudandi.
  The authors of pernicious books ought to be blamed, but the authors of useful books to be praised.
 Non omnes equi sunt candidi, multi etiam rufi nigrique sunt.
  All horses are not white, many also are bay and black.
 Syracusarum aedificia erant omnia pulchra et publica et privata, et sacra et profana.
  All the buildings of Syracuse were beautiful, public as well as private, sacred and profane.
 Hortus magnus est meus, tui autem qui multi sunt, parvi sunt omnes.
  My garden is large, but your gardens, which are numerous, are all small.
 Si omnes reges bellicosi essent, populi essent miseri, nam bellum maximum est omnium malorum.
  If all kings were fond of war, nations would be wretched, for war is the greatest of all evils.
 Si reges justi humanique omnes semper fuissent, nonnullae gentes multo feliciores fuissent quam fuerunt.
  If all kings had always been just and humane, some nations would have been much happier than they have been.
 Sobrii non semper sunt milites; si semper essent sobrii tam immanes non essent, quam interdum sunt.
  Soldiers are not always temperate; if they were always temperate, they would not be so barbarous as they are sometimes.
 Si lex severior esset, homines industriosi et feliciores et locupletiores essent quam nunc sunt, nam nunc fraudatores latronesque ubique extant.
  If the law were more severe, industrious men would be richer and happier, for rogues and vagabonds exist everywhere now.
 asportātus est, he, she, it was or has been carried away.
 exterminātus est, he, she, it was or has heen expelled.
 aedificātus est, it was or has been built.
 conditus est, it was or has been built.
 profligātus est, it was or has been routed.
 prohibitus est, it was or has been prohibited.
 dīrutus est, it was or has been pillaged.
 factus est, it was or has been done or made.
 sumptus est, it was or has been taken.
 diffūsus est, it was or has been spread abroad.
 interfectus est, he, she, or it was slain.
 inclūsus est, he, she, or it was enclosed.
 concoctus est, it was or has been digested.
 dictus est, it was or has been said, or spoken.
 declārātus est, he, she, or it was declared.
 conservātus est, he, she, or it was saved.
 repositus est, he, she, or it was placed.
 sepultus est, he, she, or it was buried.
 combustus est, he, she, or it was burnt.
 cremātus est, he, she, or it was burnt.
 inventus est, he, she, or it was found.
 revocatus est, he, she or it was recalled.
 caesus est, he, she, or it was killed.
 actus erat, it had been acted or done.
The conditions of peace were most harsh and iniquitous.
  Pacis conditiones durissimae erant et iniquissimae.
The Hebrus is a very rapid river of Thrace.
  Hebrus amnis est Thraciae celerrima.
Popilius was a client of the great orator Cicero.
  Popilius cliens erat magni Ciceronis oratoris.
An old man is a man of many years.
  Multorum senex homo est annorum.
Not only the Sicilians are wretched, but other nations as well.
  Non solum Siculi miseri sunt, verum etiam ceterae nationes.
All the movements and courses of the stars are fixed.
  Omnes stellarum motus et cursus certi sunt.
The master is severe because the servants are lazy.
  Dominus severus est, quia servi sunt pigri.
The master of idle servants must occasionally be severe.
  Pigrorum servorum dominus interdum severus esse debet.
The bonds of human society are everywhere reason and speech.
  Societatis humanae vincula ubique ratio et oratio sunt.
Heavy poverty is often more useful to a man than great riches.
  Gravissima saepe utilior homini est paupertas quam magnae divitiae.
Titus was called the love and pride of the human race.
  Titus amor ac deliciae generis humani vocatus est.
A wide spreading alder overshadows the entrance of the limpid fountain.
  Limpidi fontis aditum patula alnus obumbrat.
Alexander the Great was the ruler of many nations.
  Imperator multarum nationum Alexander ille Magnus erat.
If kings are not upright, neither can they be happy.
  Si reges probi non sunt, beati esse non possunt.
The head is the uppermost part of the human body.
  Caput pars summa est corporis humani.
Much money is the highest wish of covetous men.
  Multa pecunia votum avarorum est summum.
The peacock is handsomer than other birds, but not more useful.
  Pulchrior est pavo, quam caeterae aves, sed non utilior.
The recollection of bygone trials and dangers is pleasing to man.
  Praeteritorum laborum periculorumque memoria jucunda est homini.