61 - 67
All nouns having the genitive singular in -ei, belong to the fifth declension, and are declined thus:─
  diēs -ēi m./f., a day.
Nom. di-ēs a day
Gen. di-ēi of a day
Dat. di-ēi to a day
Acc. di-ēm a day
Abl. di-ē by a day
Voc. di-ēs day!
Nom. di-ēs days
Gen. di-ērum of days
Dat. di-ēbus to days
Acc. di-ēs days
Abl. di-ēbus by days
Voc. di-ēs days!
 (1) There are fifty nouns belonging to this declension, all of which are feminine except diēs -ēi, a day, which is doubtful in the singular, and masculine in the plural, and its compound meridiēs -ēi, noon, which is masculine in the singular and has no plural.
 (2) None of the nouns of this declension are used in the plural, with the exception of rēs, diēs, faciēs, spēs, effigiēs, and speciēs; the last four of which are seldom found in that number beyond the nominative, accusative, and vocative cases.
 (3) The genitive and dative singular is sometimes contracted into -e, as die for diēi.
 (4) Greek nouns of this declension are only indeclinable neuter plurals, as cēte, whales.
What nouns belong to the fifth declension?
Of what gender are nouns of that declension?
Decline the compound noun respublica, gen. reipublicae, a commonwealth.
What is the genitive plural of rēs, rēi?
What Greek nouns belong to the fifth declension?
 speciēs -ēi f., appearance, figure, vision, semblance.
 perniciēs -ēi f., a violent death, mortality, destruction.
 effigiēs -ēi f., a reflex, image, or statue.
 saniēs -ēi f., putrid blood.
 dīluviēs -ēi f., a deluge.
 aciēs -ēi f., an army, also the sight.
 rabiēs -ēi f., rage.
 glaciēs -ēi f., ice.
 pauperiēs -ēi f., poverty.
 rēs rēi f., a thing, object.
 planitiēs -ēi f., a flat surface, plain, field, or expanse.
 requiēs -ēi f., rest, repose.
 fidēs -ēi f., faith, truth.
 māteriēs -ēi f., timber.
 pullitiēs -ēi f., poultry.
 Homines specie recti decipiuntur.
  Men are deceived by an appearance of rectitude.
 Saepe fortunae speciem sequuntur avari.
  Covetous men often pursue a shadow of fortune.
 Rex Lydiae Cyro fidem dedit.
  The king of Lydia pledged (his) faith to Cyrus.
 Germinat ubique granum fidei.
  A grain of faith germinates everywhere.
 Pecunia necessaria, fides autem magis necessaria.
  Money is necessary, but faith still more necessary.
 Spes compede vinctum solatur.
  Hope comforts (one) bound with a chain.
 Felicitatis spem debemus habere.
  We ought to entertain a hope of happiness.
 Temperiei humorem pernicies comitatur.
  Mortality accompanies humidity of temperature.
 Propinquorum perniciem Lacedaemonii ulciscuntur.
  The Lacedemonians are avenging the destruction of their kinsmen.
 Cereris effigiem Siculi coluerunt.
  The Sicilians worshipped an image of Ceres.
 Milites sanie perterriti fuerunt.
  The soldiers were frightened by the putrid blood.
 Dionysii rabiem populus queritur.
  The people murmur at the rage of Dionysius.
 Pluvia diluviem minatur agris.
  The rain threatens a deluge to the fields.
 Non eadem res laevis et aspera est.
  The same thing is not smooth and rough.
 Rerum calumnia est nocentissima.
  Calumny is the most vexatious of things.
 Felix est qui rerum causas cognoscere potest.
  He is fortunate who can detect the causes of things.
 Rerum dominus est homo contentus.
  A contented man is master of circumstances.
 Principi reipublicae Cicero erat inimicus.
  Cicero was unfriendly to the chief of the state.
 Anus vultum speciemque scurra imitatur.
  The buffoon mocks the look and appearance of the old woman.
 Veritatis fideique legatus pignus dedit.
  The ambassador gave a pledge of truth and faith.
 Avaritia fidem probitatemque subvertit.
  Avarice overthrows faith and probity.
 Senatus auctoritate Atticus aciem inspectavit.
  By the authority of the senate, Atticus inspected the army.
 Quid magis est durum quam glacies? quid mollius unda?
  What is harder than ice? what softer than a wave?
 Ingens glaciei planities perterrefecit viatores.
  An immense expanse of ice scared the travellers.
 Neque pauperies neque mors me terret.
  Neither poverty nor death terrifies me.
 Horae cedunt et dies.
  Hours and days pass away.
 Titus imperator quondam dixit: "Amici, diem perdidi!"
  The Emperor Titus once said: "Friends, I have lost a day!"
 Tua res agitur,1 paries quum proximus ardet.
  It concerns you when the next house is on fire.
 Deus est qui rerum vicissitudines ordinesque conservat.
  There is a God who maintains the variations and arrangement of things.
 Nulla lassitudo impedire officium fidemque debet.
  No weariness ought to retard duty and faith.
 (1) Tua res agitur, your business is concerned, i.e., it is your affair, or it concerns you.
 habeat, he, she, or it may have.
 fiat, he, she, or it should be done, or made.
 ignōret, he, she, or it should be ignorant of.
 surgāt, he, she, or it should rise.
 dēpōnat, he may lay down.
 mollescat,1 he, she, or it may become effeminate.
 eat, he, she, or it should go.
 sciat, he, she, or it may know.
 subveniat, he, she, or it would aid.
 jugulent, they may cut the throats of.
 currant, they run, or travel.
 expectēmus, we should wait.
 possēmus, we could.
 ferāmus, we bear.
 doceāmus, we teach.
 dēbeāmus, we must, or should.
 assuescāmus, we should habituate ourselves.
 petāmus, we should ask.
 faciāmus, we do, or make.
 ērudiāmus, we instruct.
 sentiant, they perceive or feel.
 exeant, they may go out.
Socrates was rich in faith.
  Socrates fide dives erat.
Alcibiades was handsome in face and figure.
  Alcibiades facie specieque elegans erat.
Newness of things is most agreeable to men.
  Novitas rerum gratissima est hominibus.
What country is richest in material?
  Quae regio materie ditissima est?
What is now the day2 of the month?
  Quid mensis nunc est dierum numerus?
Who was more defiled by poverty than Popilius?
  Quis pauperie inquinatior fuit quam Popilius?
The commonwealth was hostile to Caesar.
  Respublica Caesari erat inimica.
Caesar was hostile to the commonwealth.
  Caesar reipublicae inimicus erat.
Doubt is an enemy3 of faith.
  Inimica dubitatio fidei est.
Hope is a vigorous adversary to poverty.
  Spes acerrimus pauperiei adversarius est.
A beautiful countenance is a silent recommendation.
  Formosa facies muta est commendatio.
The soldiers are avenging the destruction of their comrades.
  Sodalium perniciem milites ulciscuntur.
The son is not always a reflex of his father's manners.
  Filius non semper est effigies morum patris.
The name of peace is sweet and is itself a salutary thing.
  Nomen pacis est dulce, et ipsa res salutaris.
Cato the elder was a wise, just, and learned man.
  Cato major, homo sapiens, justus, doctusque erat.
Not every Greek philosopher was as wise, just, and learned as Cato.
  Non omnis philosophus Graecus tam sapiens erat, justus doctusque ut Cato.
Atticus was a good citizen but an unfortunate man.
  Atticus civis erat bonus, infelix autem homo.
Philip was a great king and a good father.
  Philippus rex erat magnus et pater bonus.
No king was so pious or so enlightened as Codrus the Athenian.
  Nullus rex erat tam pius tamve liberalis ut Codrus Atheniensis.
Virgil was not so eminent or so sublime a poet as Homer.
  Virgilius poeta non erat tam praestans, tamve grandis ut Homerus.
Though no profane poet is so preeminent or so illustrious as Homer, yet he is said to have been blind.
  Quamquam nullus poeta profanus tam praestans erat, tamve inclytus ut Homerus, tamen caecus fuisse dicitur.
 (1) Verbs that imply to begin doing anything, or to grow towards a state, are termed inceptives. These are generally formed from other verbs, by adding the syllables -esco to the root of the present, as mollio, I soften, mollesco, I grow soft.
 (2) Say ─ "the number of days."
 (3) Put enemy in feminine to agree with doubt. (See Rem.(2) Lesson 12.)
 stārem, I might stand.
 stārēs, thou mightest stand, you might stand.
 stāret, he might stand.
 colerem, I might cultivate.
 colerēs, thou mightest cidtivate, you might cultivate.
 coleret, he might cultivate.
 vidērem, I might see.
 vidērēs, thou mightest see, you might see.
 vidēret, he might see.
 venīrem, I might come.
 venīrēs, thou mightest come, you might come.
 venīret, he might come.
 interrogāret, he might ask.
 dāret, he, she, or it would give.
 existimāret, he, she, or it might think.
 permanēret, he, she, or it could continue.
 comitiaret, he, she, or it could continue.
 iret, he might go.
 vellet, he, she, or it were, or might wish.
 posset, he, she, or it could.
 laederent, they might injure.
 abessent, they might be absent.
 possent, they might.
 poteris, thou wilt be able.
 Dic quod putas.
  Say what you think.
 Credo quod dicis.
  I believe what you say.
 Potesne bene legere?
  Can you read correctly?
 Si potes, dic mihi, si non potes taceto.
  If you can, tell me; if not, hold your peace.
 Quanto acerbissima olea erit, tanto optimum erit oleum.
  The more bitter the olive, the better the oil.
 Honesta mors melior quam vita turpis.
  An honest death is better than a shameful life.
 Civitas nimis opulens, plerumque instabilis.
  A too rich state is generally unstable.
 Si omnis auctor hilaris esset, omnis liber esset jucundus.
  If every author were mirthful, every book would be amusing.
 Omnis liber nec jucundus nec utilis est.
  Not every book is either amusing or useful.
 Utinam omnis liber jucundus aut utilis esset!
  Would that every book were either amusing or useful!
 Ferrum nobis magis necessarium quam aurum.
  Iron is more necessary to us than gold.
 Patientia haudquaquam mediocre beneficium.
  Patience is by no means an insignificant blessing.
 Si tu diligens fuisses, qui meus amor est, amicus esses meus.
  If you had been diligent, such is my love, you would be my friend.
 Ita meus est amor, ut esses amicus meus, si diligens fuisses.
  Such is my love, that you would be my friend, if you had been diligent.
 Non omnis homo sapiens doctusque notus est.
  Every learned and wise man is not known.
 Homo inglorius saepe melius est notus quam sapiens et doctus.
  An inglorious man is often better known than a learned and wise man.
 Quamquam Zoilus bene notus erat, tamen homo erat inglorius.
  Although Zoilus was well known, yet he was an insignificant personage.
 Fide et probitate nemo Thebanus par erat Epaminondae.
  No Theban was equal to Epaminondas in faith and probity.
 Villa bona assiduaque, semper abundat porco, haedo, agno, pullitie, lacte, caseo, melle.
  A good and thrifty country-house always abounds in pork, goat's flesh, lamb, poultry, milk, cheese and honey.
 Nullum munus reipublicae afferre majus meliusve possumus, quam si doceamus atque erudiamus juventutem.
  We are able to bring the state no greater or better gift, than if we teach and instruct youth.
 putāvissem, I might have thought.
 putāvissēs, thou mightest have thought, you might have thought.
 putāvisset, he might have thought.
 putāvissēmus, we might have thought.
 putāvissētis, you might have thought.
 putāvissent, they might have thought.
 vidisset, he, she, or it saw.
 fēcisset, he, she, it, had or would have done.
 āmīsisset, he had lost.
 posuisset, he had placed.
 occīdisset, he might slay.
 accidisset, he, she, or it had happened.
 docuissem, I might have taught.
 docuissēs, thou mightest have taught, you might have taught.
 docuisset, he might have taught.
 docuissēmus, we might have taught.
 docuissētis, you might have taught.
 docuissent, they might have taught.
 amāvissent, they had loved.
 regnassent,1 they had reigned.
 intrassent, they had entered.
 nōverit, he knew.
 reprehenderit, he, she or it can find fault with.
 abierint, they had gone into, or become.
 (1) The third pers. pluperf. subj. is usually contracted, as regnassent for regnavissent. (See also Rem.(2) Lesson 30.)
A simple leaf is a wonderful and beautiful object.
  Res admirabilis pulchraque folium est simplex.
When the tree is hollow, the branches are frail.
  Quando arbor est cava, fragiles sunt rami.
The stag is a handsome, but by no means a docile animal.
  Animal cervus est formosum, nequaquam vero docile.
Antony was a brave man, but certainly not a fortunate commander.
  Antonius vir erat fortis, sed non felix quidem imperator.
A little example is always more useful than a great precept.
  Utilius parvum exemplum quam praeceptum magnum.
Every nation is not alike.
  Non omnis gens est similis.
One nation is cruel, another merciful.
  Alter gens est crudelis, alter quidem clemens.
A nation that is brave is generally clement.
  Quae gens est fortis, plerumque clemens est.
A cruel race is rarely brave.
  Gens crudelis raro est fortia.
If every nation were enlightened, no nation would be cruel.
  Si, omnis gens liberalis esset, nulla gens esset crudelis.
No nation can be happy unless contented.
  Nulla gens nisi contenta potest esse beata.
A contented race is generally happy.
  Gens contenta plerumque beata est.
Many nations are wretched, consequently many nations are turbulent.
  Multae gentes sunt miserae, ergo multae gentes seditiosae sunt.
No nation can always be the same.
  Nulla gens semper eadem esse potest.
The Campania was formerly a fertile and productive region, but it is not so now.
  Campania olim fertilis et fructuosa erat regio, nunc autem non item.
One man is often a reflex of his (sui) kind.
  Unus homo saepe sui generis est effigies.
If every Briton were irascible, the nation would be very troublesome.
  Si omnis Brito iracundus esset, gens esset difficillima.
All mankind, the good as well as the bad, are mortal.
  Cuncta gens humana et bona et mala mortalis est.
Socrates was neither rich nor powerful, but he was a great and good man, and likewise a pious and learned philosopher.
  Socrates nec dives nec potens erat, vir autem bonus et clarus; idem erat pius doctusque philosophus.
 putor, I am reckoned.1
 putāris, thou art reckoned, you are reckoned.
 putātur, he is reckoned.
 putāmur, we are reckoned.
 putāmini, you are reckoned.
 putantur, they are reckoned.
 laudātur, he, she, or it is praised.
 culpātur, he, she, or it is blamed.
 levātur, he, she, or it is relieved.
 appellātur, he, she, or it is called.
 prōrogātur, he, she, or it is put off.
 postulātur, he, she, or it is asked.
 doceor, I am taught.
 docēris, thou art taught, you are taught.
 docētur, he is taught.
 docēmur, we are taught.
 docēmini, you are taught.
 docentur, they are taught.
 locātur, he, she, or it is placed.
 ornantur, they are adorned.
 adjuvantur, they are softened.
 creantur, they are created or appointed.
 mūtantur, they are changed or altered.
 gubernantur, they are governed.
 (1) When in English a form of the verb to be is followed by a past participle, tbe two words together generally constitute a desinence of the verb passive, and are to be rendered in Latin by the corresponding form of the passive voice.
 Rex sapiens auxiliator est pretiosus.
  A wise king is a valuable ally.
 Non omnis auxiliator rex est sapiens.
  Every ally is not a wise king.
 Auxiliator difficilis haudquaquam expetendus est.
  A troublesome ally is by no means desirable.
 Utinam omnis auxiliator sapiens fidelisque esset!
  Would that every ally were firm and faithful!
 Facies blanda est plerumque grata.
  An affable countenance is generally agreeable.
 Crebra repetitio utilis est pueris.
  Frequent repetition is useful to boys.
 Spes futuri me solatur et consolatur.
  Hope of the future comforts and consoles me.
 Syracusae urbs est praeclara et perantiqua.
  Syracuse is a very illustrious and a very ancient city.
 Roma non est tam clara tamve antiqua quam Syracusae.
  Rome is not so illustrious or so ancient as Syracuse.
 Murus si curvus firmus esse non potest.
  A wall if bent cannot be strong.
 Vallum si profundum interdum melius est quam murus.
  A rampart, if deep, is sometimes better than a wall.
 Maceries fortis esse debet, sed non nimis alta.
  A garden wall ought to be strong, but not too high.
 Bellum ars est necessaria, nequaquam autem salutaris.
  War is a necessary, but certainly not a beneficent science.
 Pietas si sincera valde laudanda est, si autem insincera valde vituperanda.
  Piety if sincere, is very praiseworthy, but if insincere is much to be reprehended.
 Si rector est avarus, conditio ejus est miserabilis.
  If a sovereign is covetous, his condition is miserable.
 Si omnis rector esset avarus, omnis populus miserabilis esset.
  If every potentate were covetous, every people would be wretched.
 Omnis rector tamen non est avarus, nec omnis populus miserabilis.
  Every potentate, however, is not covetous, nor is every people wretched.
 Uxor pia mater est vigil.
  A dutiful wife is a vigilant mother.
 Quae mulier est iracundae, ea mater esse egregia non potest.
  A woman who is irascible cannot be an exemplary mother.
 Jucunda melior est plerumque mater, quam mulier gravis.
  A cheerful woman is generally a better mother than a grave one.
 Mater tua mulier, et jucunda, et vigil, et solicita est.
  Your mother is a cheerful, vigilant, and careful woman.
 Uxor consulis fortasse paulo remissa nimis, mater pia est tamen.
  The consul's wife is perhaps a little too remiss, yet she is a dutiful mother.
 Omnis filia non est obediens, nec omnis prudens.
  Every daughter is not obedient, nor is every daughter prudent.
 Quamquam filia est obediens, si non etiam prudens, non est perfecta.
  Although a daughter is obedient, if she is not prudent also, she is not perfect.
 color, I am esteemed.
 coleris, thou art esteemed, you are esteemed.
 colitur, he is esteemed.
 colimur, we are esteemed.
 colimini, you are esteemed.
 coluntur, they are esteemed.
 dīcitur, he, she, or it is said.
 cernitur, he, she, or it is known.
 amittitur, he, she, or it is lost.
 intelligitur, he, she, or it is understood.
 ferior, I am hit.
 ferīris, thou art hit, you are hit.
 ferītur, he is hit.
 ferīmur, we are hit.
 ferīmini, you are hit.
 feriuntur, they are hit.
 volvitur, he, she, or it is revolved.
 agitur, he, she, or it is concerned, or lies at stake.
 nascitur, he, she, it is born, or bred.
 confertur, he, she, or it is conferred.
Are you not a Milesian? ─ No, I am an Ephesian.
  Nonne tu es Milesius? ─ Minime, Ephesius sum.
Is the bread tender? ─ No, it is hard.
  Estne tener panis? ─ Minime, durus est.
The granary is full, is it not?
  Num horreum est plenum?
Urbanity is always pleasing.
  Suavitas semper est jucunda.
Indigence is a terrible evil.
  Malum egestas est formidolosum.
A simple mind is generally contented.
  Plerumque animus simplex contentus est.
Light to us is a beneficent gift.
  Lux nobis benignum est donum.
Air is quite as necessary for us as food.
  Aer aeque ac cibus nobis est necessarius.
You are neither sufficiently attentive nor sufficiently careful.
  Nec satis es vigil, nec satis solicitus.
If you were more earnest, you would be more esteemed.
  Si magis esses solicitus, magis amatus esses.
Would that you were more attentive and more earnest!
  Utinam magis vigil magisque solicitus esses!
This garden wall of mine is too high.
  Haec mea maceries nimis est alta.
That book of yours ought not to be read.
  Ille tuus liber non legendus est.
This is the cause, that the remedy.
  Haec causa est, remedium illud.
One man is born to fortune, another to misfortune.
  Alius homo fortunae, alius calamitati natus est.
Darius was a great but very unfortunate king.
  Darius rex erat magnus, valde autem infelix.
Alexander was a fortunate soldier, for he was never vanquished.
  Alexander miles erat felix, nam nunquam victus fuit.
Ascanius was an exemplary son, and a dutiful grandson.
  Ascanius filius egregius neposque pius fuit.
Segesta was a large and opulent Sicilian city.
  Segesta magnum opulensque oppidum erat Sicilianum.
Thebes was the capital of Boeotia, but there was another city of the same (ejusdem) name in Egypt, which was also called Heliopolis, that is, the city of the sun.
  Thebae caput erat Boeotiae alia autem fuit ejusdem nominis urbs Aegypti, quae et Heliopolis, i.e. civitas solis appellabatur.