54 - 60
All nouns haying the genitive in -us, are of the fourth, declension, and are declined like fructus,thus:─
  gradus -us m., a step.
Nom. grad-us a step
Gen. grad-us of a step
Dat. grad-ui to a step
Acc. grad-um a step
Abl. grad-u by a step
Voc. grad-us step!
Nom. grad-ūs steps
Gen. grad-uum of steps
Dat. grad-ibus to steps
Acc. grad-ūs steps
Abl. grad-ibus by steps
Voc. grad-ūs steps!
 (1) Nouns of the fourth declension have two nominative terminations, -us and -u. Those in -u are all neuter, and are indeclinable in the singular, thus:─
  cornu -u n., a horn.
Nom. cornu
Gen. cornu
Dat. cornu
Acc. cornu
Abl. cornu
Voc. cornu
Nom. cornua
Gen. cornuum
Dat. cornibus
Acc. cornua
Abl. cornibus
Voc. cornua
 (2) As regards the gender of nouns of the fourth declension, anus -us, an old woman; nurus -us, a daughter-in-law; socrus -us, a mother-in-law; are naturally feminine: quercus -us, an oak, and ficus -us, a fig-tree, are also feminine, because they are the names of trees: but, with the exception of these, and acus -us f., a needle; manus -us f., the hand; porticus -us f., a porch; domus -us f., a house; tribus -us f., a tribe; all the substantives in -us of this declension are masculine.
 (3) The following nouns of the fourth declension have -ubus instead of -ibus, in the dat. and abl. plu.:─
 acus -us f., a needle.
 arcus -us m., a bow, or vault.
 artus -us m., a joint.
 lacus -us m., a lake.
 partus -us m., a birth.
 portus -us m., a harbour.
 specus -us m./f./n., a den or cave.
 tribus -us f., a tribe.
 genu indec. in sing, n., the knee.
 veru indec. in sing, n., a spit.
Consequently genu makes dat. and abl. plu. genubus (not genibus).
 (4) Originally the nouns of the fourth declension belonged to the third, and the genitive singular is sometimes met with uncontracted, as anus, an old woman, gen. anuis (instead of anus). The dative singular, on the other hand, is sometimes found contracted into -u, as curru, instead of currui.
 (5) Greek nouns of the fourth declension end in -us or -o, and are declined thus:─
  Jēsus/Iēsus m. Jesus.
  Dīdo -us f. an African queen.
Nom. Jesus Dīdo
Gen. Jēsu Dīdus
Dat. Jēsu Dīdo
Acc. Jēsum Dīdo
Abl. Jēsu Dīdo
Voc. Jēsu Dīdo
 Dīdo, however, is sometimes made a noun of the third declention, with the genitive Dīdōnis.
What nouns belong to the fourth declension?
How are nouns in -u declined?
Why is the circumflex accent used over the genitive termination of this declension? (See Introduction to First Course.)
Decline the noun domus, a house.
Of what gender are nouns of the fourth declension?
What is the nominative plural of anus, an old woman?
What is the dative and ablative plural of vultus, the countenance?
What nouns of the fourth declension make the dative and ablative plural in -ubus?
What are the terminations of Greek nouns belonging to the fourth declension?
 lūsus -us m., play, sport, pastime.
 manus -us f., the hand, also action, force, strength.
 adventus -us m., coming, arrival, result.
 fīcus -us m., a fig.
 exercitus -us m., an army.
 victus -us m., food, diet.
 habitus -us m., habit, dress.
 mōtus -us m., motion, action, gesture, movement.
 sumptus -us m., charge, expense.
 monitus -us m., warning, advice.
 aditus -us m., an entrance.
 spūmātus -us m., foaming.
 luctus -us m., mourning.
 metus -us m., fear, dread, care.
 currus -us m., a chariot, carriage, or coach.
 vultus -us m., the look, aspect, countenance.
 rīsus -us m., laughter.
 flētus -us m., weeping, tears.
 fluctus -us m., a wave, also metaphorically an uproar or broil.
 cursus -us m., a course.
 exitus -us m., exit, issue, result.
 aspectus -us m., sight, look, appearance.
 ictus -us m., a stroke, striking, knock, or blow.
 effectus -us m., effect.
 Pueri lusum amant.
  Boys love play.
 Defendunt cornua cervos.
  Horns defend stags.
 Manum acu vulnerabam.
  I hurt my hand with a needle.
 Rogasne causam adventus?
  Do you ask the cause of (my) coming?
 Ficusne puella comedit?
  Is the girl eating figs?
 Sylla quatuor habet exercitus.
  Sylla has four armies.
 Consulem exercitumque Cincinnatus liberavit.
  Cincinnatus rescued a consul and an army.
 Quis potum victumque petit?
  Who asks for food and drink?
 Hephaestio Alexandrum habitu praestabat.
  Hephaestio surpassed Alexander in dress.
 Machinarum motus rotae allevant.
  Wheels assist the motion of machines.
 Paterfamilias domui porticum aedificat.
  The householder is building a porch to (his) house.
 Amici monitu exitium vitavi.
  I shunned destruction through the advice of a friend.
 Specus aditum quercus obumbrat.
  An oak overshadows the entrance of the cave.
 Tristitiam metusque ventis tradam.
  I shall abandon to the winds sadness and cares.
 Quare currui boves jungis?
  Why do you yoke oxen to the chariot?
 Arcu sagittam Diana expulit.
  Diana discharged an arrow from (her) bow.
 Damocles non porrigebat manum.
  Damocles did not stretch forth (his) hand.
 Epaminondas fortis manu fuit.
  Epaminondas was brave in action.
 Alexander manu matrem allevabat Darii.
  Alexander with his hand raised the mother of Darius.
 Heu, quam difficile est crimen non prodere vultu!
  Alas! how difficult it is not to betray a fault by the countenance.
 In puerorum vultibus risus fletui cedit.
  Laughter gives way to weeping on the countenances of the children.
 Fructu non foliis arborem aestima.
  Esteem the tree for its fruit, not for its foliage.
 Nunc quidem fluctibus nolo me confidere.
  I do not wish at present to trust myself to the waves.
 Deus est qui cursum astrorum conservat.
  There is a God who maintains the course of the stars.
 Stellarum cursus motusque manu Dei reguntur.
  The movements and courses of the stars are regulated by the hand of God.
 Prudens temporis exitium obscuritate premit Deus.
  The wise God wraps the issue of time in darkness.
 Quam uva quid potest esse aspectu pulchrius?
  What can be more beautiful in look than a cluster of grapes?
 Lapillorum ictu et tritu ignis elicitur.
  Fire is obtained by the striking and friction of flints.
 Solum afflatu poeta magnus esse potest.
  Only by inspiration can a poet be great.
 Paulus et Timotheus servi fuerunt Jesu Christi.
  Paul and Timothy were servants of Jesus Christ.
 Lacedaemonii nec victoriam nec reditum sperabant.
  The Lacedemonians expected neither victory nor return.
 Nomina quinque sensuum sunt: visus, auditus, odoratus, gustatus, tactus.
  The names of the five senses are sight, hearing, smelling, taste and touch.
 coetus -us m., an assembly, or host.
 senatus -us m., a senate.
 crūciātus -us m., torture.
 ūsus -us m., use.
 jussus -us m., a command, charge or order.
 ambitus -us m., ambition.
 affectus -us m., affection, passion.
 cāsus -us m., a fall, chance, case.
 tumultus -us m., tumult, uproar, anarchy.
 spīritus -us m., breathing, spirit, the soul.
 noctu (abl. monoptot.), in the night.
 nātu (abl. monoptot.), by birth.
 pastus -us m., feeding.
 cantus -us m., a song or note.
 morsus -us m., a bite or biting.
 pōtus -us m., drink or drinking.
 dominātus -us m., domination, authority.
 vestītus -us m., clothing, dress.
 ornātus -us m., adornment, ornament, embellishment, grandeur, dress.
 sinus -us m., a gulf.
 passus -us m., a pace, a length of about five feet.
 mercātus -us m., a market.
 consulātus -us m., a consulship.
 ēventus -us m., chance, issue, or result.
Hosts of stars.
  Stellarum coetus.
A leader of armies.
  Dux exercituum.
The Roman senate and people.
  Senatus populusque Romanus.
The tenth decree of the senate.
  Decimum senatus consultum.
A grove of pine and fir.
  Nemus pinuumque abietum.
The submission of men to authority.
  Dominatui hominum obsequium.
The torture of hunger and thirst.
  Famis sitisque cruciatus.
The number of the entrances and exits of the temple.
  Templi adituum exituumque numerus.
The dresses of the step-mother and daughter-in-law.
  Novercae nuruumque habitus.
Brasses shine by use.
  Aera nitent usu.
I come by the command of Jove.
  Jovis jussu venio.
There are four steps to the porch of the house.
  Quatuor domus porticui sunt gradus.
The author of the song is no poet.
  Auctor cantus non est poeta.
Britain is rich in lakes.
  Britannia dives est Lacubus.
The owner of the carriage is an old man.
  Possessor currus est senex.
Ambition is a most powerful passion.
  Affectus potentissimus est ambitus.
The Piraeus is the harbour of the Athenians.
  Piraeeus portus est Atheniensium.
The lion lies hid in dark forests.
  Leo saltibus obscuris latet.
Every wild beast is born with instinct.
  Omnis fera instinctu nata est.
Anger is a passion of the mind.
  Mentis est motus ira.
The defence of the case is important to me.
  Tutela casus mihi gravis est.
The end of anarchy is war.
  Bellum tumultus finis est.
Zoilus was a man poor in spirit.
  Zoilus homo fuit spiritu pauper.
Horns are ornaments of cattle.
  Cornua boum sunt ornamenta.
The aspect of the sea is not always pleasing.
  Maris vultus non semper est jucundus.
 cultus -us m., culture, cultivation, also worship.
 aestus -us m., any boisterous motion, a tide, or eddy.
 consensus -us m., consent, unity, accord, agreement.
 magistrātus -us m., civil government, magistracy.
 peditātus -us m., infantry.
 equitātus -us m., cavalry.
 volātus -us m., flight.
 fructus -us m., fruit.
 status -us m., state, or position.
 transitus -us m., transition.
 progressus -us m., progress.
 flātus -us m., a gale.
 ortus -us m., the point at which the sun or wind rises, the east.
 occāsus -us m., a going down, or fall, the going down of the sun, the west.
 Mendicus sumptu regis elatus est.
  The beggar was buried at the king's expense.
 Spumatu et fluctibus mare furit.
  The sea is raging with foaming and waves.
 Tristitia luctu non potest mitescere.
  Grief cannot be allayed by mourning.
 Cultus Dei primum est officium.
  The worship of God is our first duty.
 Dum fortuna manet vultum servatis amici.
  Whilst fortune lasts, friends, you watch my countenance.
 Quare parrarum cantus pastum atque volatum augur observat?
  Why does the soothsayer watch the notes feeding and flight of jays?
 Athenienses primum lanificii et olei usum docuerunt.
  The Athenians first taught the use of spinning and oil.
 Hannibal partem exercitus Carthagine reliquit.
  Hannibal left part of his army at Carthage.
 Vana ornamentum et vestitum anus colit.
  The vain old woman studies ornament and dress.
 Incertus est exitus et anceps fortuna belli.
  The result is uncertain, and the fortune of war doubtful.
 Pressus manu caseus gratum est condimentum.
  Cheese pressed with the hand is an agreeable condiment.
 Oratoris vultus semper erat idem, quia mens semper eadem erat.
  The countenance of the orator was always the same, because his mind was always the same.
 Fletus plerumque tristitiae est effectus, interdum vero gaudii.
  Weeping is generally the effect of sadness, but sometimes of joy.
 Nonne aestus maris lunae ortu atque obitu reguntur?
  Are the tides of the sea not regulated by the rising and setting of the moon?
 Nullum certius est amicitiae vinculum quam consensus et societas consiliorum et voluntatum.
  There is no more certain bond of friendship, than the agreement and association of counsels and affections.
 Cynegirus miles Atheniensis quum manus amisisset,1 morsu navem comprehendit.2
  Cynegirus an Athenian soldier, after he had lost his hands, seized a ship with his mouth.
 Phocion Atheniensis quamquam saepe magistratus cepit, tamen perpetuo fuit pauper.
  Phocion the Athenian, although he often held the civil government, was yet always poor.
 Atticus tulit pietatis fructum, Caecilius enim moriens, testamento adoptavit eum haeredemque fecit.
  Atticus reaped the fruit of his dutiful conduct, for Caecilius dying, adopted him by will and made him his heir.
 Virtute se Datames praebuit, quum Autophradates jussu regis bello persequeretur3 eos qui defecerant: namque ejus opera,4 hostes quum castra jam intrassent, profligati sunt exercitusque reliquus conservatus regis est.
  Virtute[f単奪]勇気/勇敢/男らしさ/力量/徳/美徳 se[3単/複対/奪]彼(ら)自身 Datames[m単主]ダタメス(ペルシアの将軍) praebuit[3単/直/能/完了](prae+habeo)差し出す/申し出る/提供/供給する/ふるまう, quum~する時/~する間/~する度/~以来/~なので/たとえ~でも Autophradates[m単主/呼|複主/呼/対]アウトプラダテス(ペルシアの人名) jussu[m単与/奪]命令/指示/指揮/布告/判決/裁定/法令(2)[n単奪](目的分詞)命じる/命令する/並べる regis[m単属]王(2)[2単/直/能/現在]支配する/統治する/導く/指図する/命令する bello[n単与/奪]戦争(2)[m単与/奪]|[n単与/奪]美しい/きれいな/喜ばしい/気持ちがいい(3)[1単/直/能/現在]戦う/交戦/戦争する persequeretur[3単/接/能/未完]後を追い続ける/後に続く/どこまでも追求/追跡する eos[m複対]彼ら/それら quiなぜ?/どのように?(2)[m複主]誰/何(who /whose /whom /what /which)|誰/何か(any /anyone /anything |some /someone /something)(3)[m単主]~する人|[m複主]~する人(4)[m単/複主]どの/どのような(which /what /what kind of) defecerant[3複/直/能/過去完了]引く/撤退/退却する/反乱/反抗する/捨てる/落ちる/失敗する/しくじる/失う: namqueというのも/なぜなら ejus[m/f/n単属]彼/彼女/それ/その/そこ opera[f単主/呼/奪]苦労/労力/努力/骨折り/労働|(pl.)日雇い(2)[n複主/呼/対]仕事/作品/行為/功績/業績/実績, hostes[m複主/呼/対]敵(an enemy)|(pl.)敵(the enemy) quum~する時/~する間/~する度/~以来/~なので/たとえ~でも castra[n複主/呼/対]城/砦|(pl.)陣営/野営/キャンプ jam今/すでに/(否定形)もはや~でない intrassent[3複/接/能/過去完了](中に)入る, profligati[m/n単属][m複主/呼](完了分詞)(政府などを力ずくで)転覆させる/打ち勝つ/制覇/征服する sunt[3複/直/能/現在](sum)である exercitus[m単主/呼/属|複主/呼/対]兵士/軍隊(2)[m単主](完了分詞)駆り立てる/従事させる/訓練する/運動する/鍛える/追求する/動揺させるqueと/も/そして reliquus[m単主]残りの/他の conservatus[m単主](完了分詞)維持/保持する regis[m単属]王(2)[2単/直/能/現在]支配する/統治する/導く/指図する/命令する est[3単/直/能/現在](sum)である.
  Datames behaved himself with gallantry, when Autophradates, by order of the king, fell upon, with war, those who had revolted; for, by his means, the enemies after they had already entered the camp were routed, and the rest of the king's army was saved.
 (1) Quum manus amisisset, after he had lost his hands. The word amisisset of this sentence, is the third person singular pluperfect subjunctive of the active verb amittere, to lose. This form of the Latin verb is usually translated in the grammars he might, should, or could have lost; but though, after quum used as in the text, the verb is put in the subjunctive, the English idiom requires the corresponding form of the pluperfect indicative.
 (2) Morsu navem comprehendit, he seized a ship with his bite, i.e., his teeth. Observe that the noun morsus, though it must be rendered by teeth, in English, means bite in Latin.
 (3) Quum persequeretur eos qui defecerant, when he fell upon those who had revolted. The word persequeretur of this sentence is the third person singular imperfect subjunctive of the deponent verb persequi, to pursue, or fall upon, and according to the grammars, stands for he might, could, or would fall upon. In the text quum is followed by the imperfect subjunctive, and not by the pluperfect as in the preceding sentence (see Rem.(1) above), whilst the English equivalent of both words is the same. The reason of this is, that in the one instance a completed act is referred to, whilst in the other, the event is stated as transpiring contingently with some other events to which it holds a relation of present rather than past time. (See construction of imperfect tense, Rem.(1) Lesson 17.)
 (4) Namque ejus opera, for by his means. The English possessive pronouns his, her, its, when not emphatic, are often rendered by ejus, of him, her, or it. instead of suus, as Peter loves his father (meaning his own father), Petrus patrem amat suum (not ejus); but Peter loves John and his brother (meaning John's brother); Petrus Joannem amat et fratrem ejus (not suus).
 spēra1 / spērāto, hope.
 spēret / spērāto, let him hope.
 spērēmus, let us hope.
 spērāte / spērātōte, hope.
 spērent / spēranto, let them hope.
 aestima, esteem or value.
 doma, subdue.
 dā, give.
 para, prepare for.
 libera, deliver.
 cūra, see to.
 comparāte, prepare, provide, or purchase.
 vide / vidēto, see.
 videat / vidēto, let him see.
 videāmus, let us see.
 vidēte / vidētōte, see.
 videant / vidento, let them see.
 time, fear.
 appāre, seem.
 mone, advise.
 doce, teach.
 stude, study.
 tacēto, hold your peace.
 habēto, have, also be assured.
 (1) The imperative mood is used in Latin as in English, when a command is expressed or implied.
Gaul was rich in oaks.
  Gallia quercibus dives fuit.
The army was rich in infantry.
  Exercitus dives fuit peditatibus.
Cicero was the most brilliant orator of the Romans.
  Romanorum orator Cicero fuit clarissimus.
There never was a man fonder of fighting than Cynegirus.
  Nunquam homo fuit quam Cynegirus pugnacior.
Datames was a general of very great renown, and a remarkably brave man.
  Datames dux erat inclytissimus virque fortissimus.
The sunset was magnificent, but the sunrise more magnificent.
  Obitus solis fuit grandis, grandior autem ortus.
The market-place was most spacious, the temple most ancient, and very beautiful.
  Forum erat amplissimum, templum pulcherrimum et perantiquum.
If you were rich, you would not be happier than you are now.
  Si tu esses dives, non esses beatior quam nunc es.
My dog is very useful, never was there an animal more vigilant than he.
  Canis utilissimus est meus, nunquam animal vigilius quam ille.
Liberty is more agreeable than golden captivity.
  Libertas gratior est quam aurea captivitas.
Nature is satisfied with the culture of the husbandman.
  Cultu agricolae natura est contenta.
The wise man is free from the dread of death.
  Sapiens liber est metu mortis.
The bites of goats are destructive to vines.
  Caprorum morsus sunt pestis vitibus.
The wall is rather high, for fear of robbers.
  Metu praedonum murus sublimior est.
Aeneas was dearer to Dido than to virtue.
  Aeneas carior fuit Dido quam virtuti.
The general was by no means satisfied with the cavalry.
  Dux equitatu nequaquam contentus erat.
The carriage came at the going down of the sun.
  Currus occasu solis venit.
The authority of the Senate was at one time very great.
  Auctoritas senatus olim erat maxima.
The old man is guardian of the garden fruit.
  Senex horti fructus est custos.
Where are the walls of Carthage? where, the maritime glory of her harbour?
  Ubi sunt Carthaginis moenia? ubi maritima portus gloria?
 rege / regito, rule.
 cole / colito, cultivate.
 pōne, put or lay.
 age, arrange.
 dēcēde, depart.
 dīc,1 say.
 fac / facito, do or make.
 confer, go.
 surge, arise or get up.
 attolle, take up.
 tollite, away with.
 vīvite, live.
 apponite, present.
 discite, learn.
 conferas,2 place or lay.
 indūcas, lead.
 velit, let him, her, or it desire.
 tangat, let him, her, or it touch.
 fiat, let that, or it be done.
 estōte, be.
 veni / venīte, come.
 audi / audīte, hear, or listen to.
 abi, go.
 īte, go.
 (1) The second person singular of facere, dicere, ferre, and its compounds, drops the final -e.
 (2) The subjunctive is sometimes used instead of the imperative in expressing a command. (See Rem.(1) Lesson 58.)
 Fiat justitia!
  Let justice be done!
 Fac quod dico.
  Do what I say.
 Omnis homo plus minusve miser est.
  Every man is more or less wretched.
 Scientia plus quam divitiae expetenda est.
  Knowledge is more desirable than riches.
 Num nisi esses Romanus, esses Spartanus?
  If you were not a Roman, would you be a Spartan?
 Urbs splendidissima amplissimaque Corinthus olim fuit.
  Corinth was formerly a very magnificent and stately city.
 Tum Caesar juvenis erat, pene etiam puer.
  Caesar was then a young man, even in a manner a boy.
 Nullum animal tam incautum tamve ignarum est quam musca.
  No creature is so heedless or so ignorant as the fly.
 Nunc cygnus niger non rara est avis.
  The black swan is not now a rare bird.
 Regina audax fortisque Semiramis fuisse dicitur.
  Semiramis is said to have been a bold and daring queen.
 Themistocles dux felix fuit, rex infelix Xerxes.
  Themistocles was a fortunate general, Xerxes an unfortunate king.
 Non bellicosus erat, sed valde urbanus Aemilianus.
  Aemilianus was not warlike, but he was very affable.
 Cicero et facundus orator et clarus consul fuit.
  Cicero was an eloquent orator and illustrious consul.
 Non omnis senex est prudens, nec omnis juvenis vitiosus.
  Every old man is not prudent, nor is every youth vicious.
 Res ineptior quam liber obscurus nulla est.
  Than an obscure book, nothing is sillier.
 Quamquam auctor est doctus, liber ejus interdum obscurus est.
  Although an author is learned, his book is sometimes obscure.
 Si omnis auctor esset obscurus, omnis liber inutilis esset, sed omnis auctor obscurus non est, nec inutilis omnis liber.
  Siもしも/~かどうか/もし~ならば/たとえ~としても omnis[m/f単主/呼/属|複対]|[n単属]すべての auctor[c単主/呼]推進/促進者/旗振り役/興行主/プロモーター/生産/製造者/プロデューサー/創始/先駆者/祖先/親/作者/著者/歴史家 esset[3単/接/能/未完](sum)である obscurus[m単主]暗い/薄暗い/陰気な/憂鬱な/陰の多い/陰になっている/曖昧な, omnis[m/f単主/呼/属|複対]|[n単属]すべての liber[m単主/呼]本(2)[m単主/呼]リーベル(ローマの神/生産と豊穣の神)(3)[m単主/呼]自由な/子供(pl.)(4)[1単/接/受/現在]触れる/すくう/(草を)はむ/(儀礼上)献酒をつぐ/ちびちび飲む/味見/試飲/試食する inutilis[m/f単主/呼/属|複対]|[n単属]役に立たない/無駄/無用/無益/無能な esset[3単/接/能/未完](sum)である, sedしかし omnis[m/f単主/呼/属|複対]|[n単属]すべての auctor[c単主/呼]推進/促進者/旗振り役/興行主/プロモーター/生産/製造者/プロデューサー/創始/先駆者/祖先/親/作者/著者/歴史家 obscurus[m単主]暗い/薄暗い/陰気な/憂鬱な/陰の多い/陰になっている/曖昧な non~しない(not)|non modo(solum)...sed etiam (= not only... but also) est[3単/直/能/現在](sum)である, necそして~ない|nec...nec (=neither...nor) inutilis[m/f単主/呼/属|複対]|[n単属]役に立たない/無駄/無用/無益/無能な omnis[m/f単主/呼/属|複対]|[n単属]すべての liber[m単主/呼]本(2)[m単主/呼]リーベル(ローマの神/生産と豊穣の神)(3)[m単主/呼]自由な/子供(pl.)(4)[1単/接/受/現在]触れる/すくう/(草を)はむ/(儀礼上)献酒をつぐ/ちびちび飲む/味見/試飲/試食する.
  If every author were obscure, every book would be useless, but, every author is not obscure, nor is every book useless.
 Omnis auctor audax animosusque esse debet, sed non arrogans, nam qui liber est arrogans, absurdus est.
  Omnis[m/f単主/呼/属|複対]|[n単属]すべての auctor[c単主/呼]推進/促進者/旗振り役/興行主/プロモーター/生産/製造者/プロデューサー/創始/先駆者/祖先/親/作者/著者/歴史家 audax[m/f単主/呼]|[n単主/呼/対]大胆な/勇敢/果敢な/向う見ずな animosus[m単主]空気が満ちた/風通しのよい|勇気に満ちた/元気な/威勢のいい/ひるまないqueと/も/そして esse[不/能/現在](sum)である|(edo)食べる debet[3単/直/能/現在]義務/責任がある/~すべきである, sedしかし non~しない(not)|non modo(solum)...sed etiam (= not only... but also) arrogans[m/f単主/呼]|[n単主/呼/対]不遜な/自称する/傲慢な/横柄な/尊大な(2)[m/f単主/呼]|[n単主/呼/対](現在分詞)自分のものであると称する, namというのも/なぜなら quiなぜ?/どのように?(2)[m複主]誰/何(who /whose /whom /what /which)|誰/何か(any /anyone /anything |some /someone /something)(3)[m単主]~する人|[m複主]~する人(4)[m単/複主]どの/どのような(which /what /what kind of) liber[m単主/呼]本(2)[m単主/呼]リーベル(ローマの神/生産と豊穣の神)(3)[m単主/呼]自由な/子供(pl.)(4)[1単/接/受/現在]触れる/すくう/(草を)はむ/(儀礼上)献酒をつぐ/ちびちび飲む/味見/試飲/試食する est[3単/直/能/現在](sum)である arrogans[m/f単主/呼]|[n単主/呼/対]不遜な/自称する/傲慢な/横柄な/尊大な(2)[m/f単主/呼]|[n単主/呼/対](現在分詞)自分のものであると称する, absurdus[m単主]調子はずれの/不調和/不協和な/耳障りな/不条理な/滑稽な/馬鹿げた est[3単/直/能/現在](sum)である.
  Every author ought to be bold and spirited, but not arrogant, for a presumptuous book is ridiculous.
 Omnis auctor modestus esse debet, omnis liber utilis, sed non omnis auctor est modestus, nec omnis liber utilis.
  Omnis[m/f単主/呼/属|複対]|[n単属]すべての auctor[c単主/呼]推進/促進者/旗振り役/興行主/プロモーター/生産/製造者/プロデューサー/創始/先駆者/祖先/親/作者/著者/歴史家 modestus[m単主]節度のある/穏健な/適度な/謙虚な/控えめな/穏やかな/辛抱強い/寛容な/沈着な/落ち着いた/思慮深い/慎重な/分別のある esse[不/能/現在](sum)である|(edo)食べる debet[3単/直/能/現在]義務/責任がある/~すべきである, omnis[m/f単主/呼/属|複対]|[n単属]すべての liber[m単主/呼]本(2)[m単主/呼]リーベル(ローマの神/生産と豊穣の神)(3)[m単主/呼]自由な/子供(pl.)(4)[1単/接/受/現在]触れる/すくう/(草を)はむ/(儀礼上)献酒をつぐ/ちびちび飲む/味見/試飲/試食する utilis[m/f単主/呼/属|複対]|[n単属]役に立つ/有用な/有益な, sedしかし non~しない(not)|non modo(solum)...sed etiam (= not only... but also) omnis[m/f単主/呼/属|複対]|[n単属]すべての auctor[c単主/呼]推進/促進者/旗振り役/興行主/プロモーター/生産/製造者/プロデューサー/創始/先駆者/祖先/親/作者/著者/歴史家 est[3単/直/能/現在](sum)である modestus[m単主]節度のある/穏健な/適度な/謙虚な/控えめな/穏やかな/辛抱強い/寛容な/沈着な/落ち着いた/思慮深い/慎重な/分別のある, necそして~ない|nec...nec (=neither...nor) omnis[m/f単主/呼/属|複対]|[n単属]すべての liber[m単主/呼]本(2)[m単主/呼]リーベル(ローマの神/生産と豊穣の神)(3)[m単主/呼]自由な/子供(pl.)(4)[1単/接/受/現在]触れる/すくう/(草を)はむ/(儀礼上)献酒をつぐ/ちびちび飲む/味見/試飲/試食する utilis[m/f単主/呼/属|複対]|[n単属]役に立つ/有用な/有益な.
  Every author ought to be modest, and every book useful; but every author is not modest, nor is every book useful.
 Utinam omnis auctor modestus esset!
  Would that every author were modest!
 putem, I may think.
 putēs, thou mayest think, you may think.
 putet, he may think.
 videam, I may see.
 videas, thou mayest see, you may see.
 videat, he may see.
 sīm, I am.1
 sīs, thou art, you are.
 sit, he, she, it, or there is.
 amem, I love.
 habeam, I have.
 agam, I may act.
 agas, thou mayest act, you may act.
 agat, he may act.
 veniam, I may come.
 venias, thou mayest come, you may come.
 veniat, he may come.
 possim, I may or can.
 possis, thou mayest or canst, you may or can.
 possit, he, she, or it may or can.
 conveniam, I may come up with.
 eam, I may go.
 exeam, I may go out.
 velim, I may wish.
 (1) The words sim, sis, sit, are subjunctive forms of the verb to be, and, when used potentially, stand for I may be, thou mayest be, he may be. When, however, these words are used subjunctively, they will have to be rendered by the corresponding forms of the English indicative. (See Rem.(3) Lesson 57.) The construction of the subjunctive and other moods will be treated at length in a future Course; in the mean time, as regards casual forms of the subjunctive occurring in the exercises, their exact English meaning will be given without regard to their theoretical equivalent, which may be ascertained by referring to the tables at the end of the present course.
The seaman likes a brisk gale.
  Flatus vehemens gratus est nautae.
Human reason is never a safe counsellor.
  Monitrix ratio humana nunquam est salva.
Popilius, when a youth, was Cicero's intimate friend.
  Popilius quum juvenis, Ciceronis erat familiaris.
Zaleucus was not rich, but he was very honest.
  Non erat dives, sed erat honestissimus Zaleucus.
What praetor ever was so harsh and relentless as Verres?
  Qui praetor unquam fuit tam durus tamque iniquus quam Verres?
If you were not my friend, would you be my enemy?
  Num nisi esses amicus meus, esses inimicus meus?
I was a man when, in a manner, you were a boy.
  Homo eram quando tu pene puer eras.
That building on the left hand is the herald's house.
  Aedificium illud sinistrum praeconis est domus.
Health and contentment are better than riches.
  Meliores quam divitiae sunt valetudo atque oblectatio.
The result of anarchy is generally war.
  Tumultus exitus plerumque bellum est.
A prudent sovereign often makes a people happy.
  Prudens imperator saepe populum facit beatum.
What pleasure so charming or enduring as study?
  Quae voluptas tam est dulcis tamve diuturna quam studium?
When the disposition is bad, generally the mind is faulty.
  Quando ingenium est malum, mens plerumque vitiosa est.
The sovereignty of the mob is a most pitiless tyranny.
  Vulgi imperium tyrannis est saevissima.
No imitation is perfect, nor can any pretence be permanent.
  Nulla imitatio est perfecta, nec similatio quicquam potest esse diuturna.
Sicily was formerly a remarkably warlike as well as an exceedingly fertile island.
  Sicilia olim et bellicosissima et fertilissima erat insula.
Although Xerxes was a great king, he was cruel, and therefore not a praiseworthy man.
  Quamquam rex Xerxes erat magnus, crudelis erat, igitur non erat vir laudandus.
Themistocles, when a young man, was a diligent scholar; when an old man, a skilful commander.
  Quando juvenis, diligens discipulus Themistocles, quando senex, dux erat peritus.