131 - 135
 litera1 f., a letter.
 dictum n., a saying.
 iter n., a journey.
 testūdo f., a tortoise.
 culex m., a gnat.
 felis f., a cat.
 aer m., the air.
 nātio f., a nation.
 stannum n., tin.
 sagitta f., an arrow.
 pietas f., piety.
 rector m., a ruler.
 repetītio f., repetition, practice.
 commendātio f., commendation.
 conditio f., condition.
 opīnio f., an opinion.
 odor m., a smell, or scent, odor.
 patientia f., patience.
 villa f., a country-house.
 corōna f., a crown, or chaplet.
 contumēlia f., an affront.
 auxiliātor m., an ally.
 garrulitas f., prattle.
 remedium n., a remedy.
Good morning, Acerra!
  Salve Acerra!
Good evening, Chremes!
  Vale Chremes!
O insatiable time, how envious you are!
  O tempus edax, ut tu invidiosum es!
Is your name2 Popilius?
  Estne tibi nomen Popilius?
What noise is that?3
  Quis clamor est?
The crown is a regal insignia.
  Signum est corona regium.
Patience is a praiseworthy virtue.
  Virtus laudanda est patientia.
Is that your opinion? ─ No, it is not.
  Estne illa tua opinio? ─ Minime vero.
The cat is a useful, but deceitful animal.
  Felis animal est utilis, sed mendax.
A journey if too long is generally fatiguing.
  Iter, si nimis longum, plerumque laboriosum est.
Too much praise is almost an affront.
  Nimia laus fere contumelia est.
If a nation is cruel, it is never safe.
  Si natio est crudelis, nunquam est tuta.
The gnat is a hideous and annoying insect.
  Culex tetra est volucris et molesta.
No creature is so slow as the tortoise, or so swift as the stag.
  Nullum animal tam est tardum quam testudo, tamve velox quam cervus.
Is a sweet scent agreeable to you?
  Estne gratus tibi odor suavis?
Every smell is not sweet, nor is every perfume agreeable.
  Non omnis odor est suavis, nec omne unguentum gratum.
If the site is cheerful, the villa itself is cheerful likewise.
  Si positio jucunda est, ipsa villa etiam est jucunda.
A single letter is sometimes a short word.
  Una litera interdum breve verbum est.
A small book is often as good as a large one.4
  Liber parvus saepe aeque utilis est ac magnus.
Every book is more or less useful,5 small as well as large.
  Omnis liber plus minus utilis est, aeque parvus ac magnus.
Truly that life, as it is called, of yours6 is death.
  Vita illa vestra quae dicitur, vere mors est.
 (1) The noun litera is sometimes written littera, or lettera, by the poets.
 (2) Is your name Popilius? Estne tibi nomen Popilius? In speaking of anything very closely associated with one's own person, the possessive my, your, our are rendered by the Latin datives mihi, tibi, nobis, vobis, as nomen Popilius est mihi, the name Popilius is to me, i.e., my name is Popilius. (See Rem. Lesson 104)
 (3) What noise is that? Quis clamor est? The demonstrative pronouns this and that, are often understood in questions after a form of the verb to be.
 (4) As a large one, ac magnus. The particle one, when used after adjectives in English, is not expressed in Latin; e.g. equus albus aeque bonus est ac niger, a white horse is as good as a black one. (For other ellipses of this kind, see Rem. Lesson 90, Rem. Lesson 96, Rem.(2) Lesson 104; Rem.(1) Lesson 118, and Rem.(3) Lesson 126)
 (5) More or less useful, plus minus utilis. In the locution more or less, the conjunction or is usually dropped in Latin, as, omnis homo plus minus est pius, every man is more or less godly.
 (6) That life of yours, vestra vita. In such locutions as this book of mine, the compound possessives of mine, of thine, of ours, of yours are rendered by the simple Latin possessives meus, tuus, suus, vester, noster, sometimes with the demonstrative ille, and sometimes without, as, nescio meum illud iter, I do not know this route of mine.
 aureus -a -um, of gold, golden.
 ligneus -a -um, of wood, wooden.
 ferreus -a -um, of iron.
 lapideus -a -um, of stone.
 ahēneus -a -um, of brass, brazen.
 nonnullus -a -um, some.
 nexus -a -um, linked together.
 temperātus -a -um, temperate, mild.
 ēditus -a -um, published, pronounced.
 validus -a -um, strong, stout.
 exiguus -a -um, small, puny.
 astūtus -a -um, astute, politic.
 nātus -a -um, born.
 maritimus -a -um, maritime.
 immodicus -a -um, excessive.
 amārus -a -um, bitter.
 strenuus -a -um, energetic.
 futūrus -a -um, future.
 falsus -a -um, false.
 assuētus -a -um, accustomed.
 dubius -a -um, doubtful.
 ēgregius -a -um, exemplary.
 beātus -a -um, abounding.
 cūjus -a -um, whose.
 Aliud medicamentum est suave, aliud vero amarum.
  One medicine is sweet, but another sour.
 Bellum adhuc dubium et incertum est.
  The war is still doubtful and uncertain.
 Simulacrum est ligneum, forma verum singularis et eximia.
  The statue is of wood, but its form is singular and remarkable.
 Liber cujus est?
  Whose book is this?
 Non omnis liber qui est editus utilis est.
  Every book that is published is not useful.
 Utinam omnis liber utilis esset!
  Would that every book were useful!
 Britannia civitas eximia maritima est.
  Britain is a remarkable maritime state.
 Homo ad industriam natus est.
  Man is born to be industrious.
 Nonnulla pars est grata, nonnulla ingrata.
  Some part is agreeable, some disagreeable.
 Quod ineptum est, nequaquam est laudandum.
  What is improper is by no means to be praised.
 Haec amnis quamquam exigua, alta est et celeris.
  This stream, though small, is deep and swift.
 Labor est sanus, immodicus vero labor valde noxius.
  Labour is wholesome, but excessive labour very pernicious.
 Si dictum est verum, praeceptum mendax esse debet.
  If the saying is true, the maxim must be false.
 Praesidium quamquam validum, expugnari tamen potest.
  A fortress, though strong, may be captured.
 Quis tam perditus ac pravus conjuratus fuit quam Catilina?
  What conspirator ever was so depraved and dissolute as Catilina?
 Si frater tuus plerumque est diligens, nunc quidem otiosus esse videtur.
  If your brother is generally diligent, now at all events, he seems to be idle.
 Dux peritus interdum melior est quam murus aheneus.
  A skilful general is sometimes better than a brazen wall.
 Aedificium ligneum non est tam perenne, quam lapideum.
  A wooden house is not so durable as a stone one.
 Annulus hic ferreus est,1 alter autem aureus.
  This is an iron ring, the other a gold one.
 (1) Annulus hic ferreus est, this is an iron ring. In such locutions as an iron ring, a stone bridge, the first noun is rendered by the corresponding Latin adjective.
 occāsio f., occasion, opportunity, emergency.
 ingenium n., capacity, disposition, learning.
 faciēs f., the face, countenance, aspect, expression.
 rēs mīlitāris, military affairs, the art of war.
 discīplina mīlitāris., military affairs, the art of war.
 quadrupēs m., a horse or other domestic animal, a quadruped.
 dēmentia f., madness, stupidity, foolishness.
A stone statue is not so durable as an iron one.
  Simulacrum lapideum non est tam perenne quam ferreum.
An iron ring is not so valuable as a gold one.
  Annulus ferreus non tam pretiosus est quam aureus.
The unwritten law1 is sometimes more useful than the written law.
  Lex non scripta interdum magis utilis est quam lex scripta.
Had Tarquin not been too proud, he would not have been an exile.
  Si Tarquinius non nimis superbus fuisset, non fuisset exul.
Family and ability alone are2 nothing.
  Et genus et virtus sola nihil est.
Is the soldier who is tired and wounded an old man?
  Senexne est miles, qui fessus est ac laesus?
Do you really wish to be learned? ─ Yes, certainly.
  Visne vere doctus esse? ─ Imo certe.
Is that your cloak? ─ Yes, it is mine.
  Tuane est illa laena? ─ Mea est.
Is your friend affable? ─ No, not very.
  Comisne est amicus tuus? ─ Haudquaquam.
Your neighbour is not disobliging, is he? ─ No, not in the least.
  Num est vicinus acerbus? ─ Minime vero.
A disposition that is not tractable, is never docile.
  Quod ingenium non est facile, docile nunquam.
Your friend is sociable enough, though his expression is surly.
  Amicus est satis blandus tuus, quamquam facies ejus morosa est.
Verres, the Roman lieutenant-general, was a dissolute and extravagant man.
  Verres legatus Romanus, perditus ac profusus fuit homo.
The art of war is not only useful, but sometimes very necessary.
  Res militaris non solum est utilis, sed interdum valde necessaria.
If the enterprise is praiseworthy and the opportunity favourable, there ought to be no delaying.
  Si negotium est laudandum et occasio secunda, dilatio esse non debet.
Were every ruler3 just and prudent, human society would be much more cheerful than it now is.
  Si omnis rector justus et prudens esset, societas humana multo magis jucunda esset quam nunc est.
 (1) The unwritten law. English adjectives compounded with un- as unlike, undone, unwritten, are often best rendered by the simple adjective with non, as, lex non scripta, the unwritten law.
 (2) Are nothing, say is nothing. See Rem.(1) Lesson 127, and Rem.(2) Lesson 128.
 (3) Were every ruler, say, if every ruler were. In English the conjunction if is sometimes dropped, and the verb or auxiliary placed at the head of the sentence, as, were I, for if I were; had I, for if I had; when the auxiliary is so used, si will have to be supplied in Latin.
 morbus m., a disease, or malady.
 exitium n., decease, destruction.
 nemus n., a wood, or grove.
 salus f., health, safety.
 famulus m., a man-servant.
 architectus m., an architect.
 augur m., a soothsayer.
 mendīcus m., a beggar.
 lapillus m., a pebble.
 captivitas f., captivity.
 imitātio f., imitation.
 delphīnus m., a dolphin.
 oriens m., the east.
 lāc n., milk.
 sitis f., thirst.
 abiēs f., a fir-tree.
 onus n., a burden.
 vēlum n., cloth.
 astrum n., a star.
 oleum n., oil.
 officium n., duty.
 pectus n., the breast.
 somnus m., sleep.
 casa f., a cottage.
 Quae haec dementia est?
  What stupidity is this?
 Heu, astrum meum sinistrum!
  Alas, my unlucky star!
 Mors ferreus est somnus.
  Death is an iron sleep.
 Condimentum oleum est utile.
  Oil is a useful condiment.
 Si morbus est gravis, mors manet.
  If the malady is grave, death is waiting.
 Hic furor verus est, non imitatio.
  This fury is real, not an imitation.
 Velox delphinus semper hilaris et festus est.
  The swift dolphin is always joyful and sportive.
 Nemus frigidum umbrosumque gaudium est meum.
  A cool and shady grove is my delight.
 Augur ante exitium signum dat.
  The soothsayer gives a signal before decease.
 Beneficium saepe est paupertas, non onus.
  Poverty is often a blessing, not a burden.
 Manus est liberalis, si pectus generosum est.
  The hand is liberal, if the breast is generous.
 Saepe mendicus aeque beatus est atque imperator.
  A beggar is often as happy as an emperor.
 Nescio quare tristis sis, quamvis salus satis robusta est tua.
  I do not know why you are sad, albeit your health is robust enough.
 Plerumque velum si crassum et asperum perenne est.
  Cloth, if thick and rough, is generally durable.
 Poena captivitas non tam dura est quam exilium.
  Captivity is not so severe a punishment as exile.
 Est meum officium pium ac probum esse.
  It is my duty to be pious and upright.
 Populus illa non est tam alta et procera quam haec abies.
  That poplar-tree is not so tall and slender as this fir.
 Non omnis arbor alta est et procera.
  Every tree is not tall and slender.
 Famulus noster paulo est remissus, eximius autem coquus.
  Our domestic servant is somewhat remiss, but he is a good cook.
 Ubinam1 consul est, rogo?
  Where is the consul, I ask?
 (1) Ubinam consul est? Where is the consul? The particle nam is frequently appended to quis, quid, and, ubi, when interrogatively. Nam properly signifies by name, so that ubinam stands for in what place by name, i.e. what is the name of the place?
 urbānus -a -um, of or belonging to a city, urbane, polite.
 mediocris -e, passable, middling, tolerable.
In what place is my book?
  Ubinam liber est meus?
The boy does not believe what he says.
  Puer non credit quod dicit.
My brother not only did not come, but he did not even write.
  Frater non modo non venit, sed ne scripsit quidem.
Old age is generally grave and steady.
  Plerumque gravis stabilisque senectus est.
What is cruel is always offensive to me.
  Quod est crudele semper mihi est alienum.
The court-house is open, is it not?
  Nonne curia aperta est?
A prudent king is never invidious or unjust.
  Rex prudens nunquam invidus aut injustus est.
The whole of this region is rugged and barren.
  Tota haec regio difficilis est et sterilis.
No wind is so agreeable as the west wind.
  Nullus ventus tam gratus est quam zephyrus.
A sensible boy is never slothful or remiss.
  Puer sapiens nunquam deses est aut remissus.
This letter of yours, though passable, is by no means correctly written.
  Haec tua epistola quamquam mediocris, nequaquam est bene scripta.
A sailor is sometimes an extravagant spendthrift, but rarely a miser.
  Nauta nonnunquam profusus est nepos, raro autem avarus.
A boy who is a buffoon is generally a fool also.
  Qui puer est scurra, plerumque etiam stultus est.
Do not therefore be a buffoon.
  Ne igitur scurra esto.
We ought always to be affable, courteous, and polite.
  Semper comes faciles atque urbani esse debemus.