111 - 120
 Solon m., Solon.
 Cicero m., Cicero.
 Brennus m., Brennus.
 Popilius m., Popilius.
 Marcellus m., Marcellus.
 Cyrus m., Cyrus.
 Miltiades m., Miltiades.
 Verrēs m., Verres.
 Ulysses m., Ulysses.
 Tarquinius m., Tarquin.
 Pelopidas m., Pelopidas.
 Iphicratēs m., Iphicrates.
 Phōcion m., Phocion.
 Diogenēs m., Diogenes.
 Caesar m., Caesar.
 Croesus m., Croesus.
 Hebrus m., the Hebrus.
 Trōja f., Troy.
 Carthāgo f., Carthage.
 Segesta f., Segesta.
 Megara f., Megara.
 Syrācūsae f., Syracuse.
 Cyprus f., Cyprus.
 Hierōsolyma n., Jerusalem.
I am a soldier, but my brother is a sailor.
  Miles sum, at frater nauta.
This wine is not only tart but sour also.
  Non solum hoc vinum est asperum, sed etiam acre.
The general was not daring, but he was brave.
  Dux non erat audax, erat vero fortis.
Atticus was somewhat unsteady, but he was a faithful friend.
  Atticus paulo erat instabilis, amicus vero fidelis.
The old man is generally healthy, but he is ill now.
  Senex plerumque sanus est, nunc autem aeger.
Croesus was a rich, but not a fortunate king.
  Croesus rex erat locuples, sed non felix.
Troy was at one time a great and powerful city.
  Troja olim urbs magna fuit et potens.
Iphicrates was an illustrious general and an upright man.
  Iphicrates dux erat clarus et vir probus.
The Hebrus is a very rapid and beautiful river.
  Hebrus valde celer et pulcher fluvius est.
Tarquin was a proud and haughty king.
  Tarquinius rex superbus erat et excelsus.
The island of Cyprus is not so productive as Sicily.
  Cyprus insula non tam fertilis est quam Sicilia.
Diogenes was an eccentric philosopher, but a very learned man.
  Diogenes philosophus erat singularis, sed vir admodum doctus.
The city of Syracuse was in time past very stately and magnificent.
  Urbs Syracusae quondam erat admodum excelsa et splendida.
Ulysses was a celebrated king, and a sagacious counsellor.
  Ulysses rex celeber erat et monitor sagax.
Pelopidas was a commander of great renown, and an honourable man.
  Pelopidas imperator inclytus erat et vir honestus.
Although Caesar was a powerful ruler, he was also an eminent author.
  Quamquam Caesar potens erat imperator, auctor erat praestans quoque.
 -ne, or.1
 ac (conj.), as, than.
 atque (conj.), as, especially, and yet, than.
 quin (conj.), that, but that, why not?
 sīn2 (conj.), but if, if not
 tūm (conj.), then, at that time. as much.
 quamvis (conj.), albeit, although, very much.
 quod (conj.), that, as, because, whereas.
 (1) -ne only stands for or when whether is expressed or understood in the sentence, and corresponds exactly with an used under similar conditions. (See Rem.(3) Lesson 82)
 (2) Sin is used for si non, but only in the second clause of a compound sentence.
 Est haec tua sententia, necne?
  Is this your opinion, or (is it) not?
 Estne ipse, an non est?
  Is it himself, or (is it) not?
 Non aliter puto, ac dico.
  I think not otherwise than I speak.
 Nemo est quin id credat.
  There is no one but that believes it.
 Quin tu legis?
  Why are you not reading?
 Frater est miser aeque atque ego.
  My brother is wretched, as well as I.
 Tam sum homo quam tu.
  I am as much a man as you.
 Primum hic flos est albus, tum ruber est.
  This flower is first white then red.
 Pax quum jucunda, tum salutaris est.
  Peace when (it is) gratifying, then (it is) beneficial.
 Quamvis audacter, quamvis impudenter, tamen bene dicit.
  Albeit boldly, albeit impudently, yet he speaks well.
 Si bonus es, scelus sum, sin secus, homo sum honestus.
  If you are good, I am a villain, but if otherwise, I am an honourable man.
 Carthago fuit, sed non est.
  Carthage was, but is not.
 Brennus dux erat felix, sed homo durus et iniquus.
  Brennus was a fortunate leader, but a harsh and heartless man.
 Cicero orator erat clarus, defensor audax et auctor locuples.
  Cicero was a brilliant orator, a daring advocate, and a copious author.
 Verres legatus erat praestans, sed non justus erat homo.
  Verres was an excellent governor, but not a just man.
 Urbs Roma minime tam antiqua est quam Hierosolyma.
  The city of Rome is by no means so ancient as Jerusalem.
 Miltiades non solum dux fuit insignis, sed etiam civis probus.
  Miltiades was not only a remarkable general, but also an upright citizen.
 Urbs Segesta non erat tam magna tamve frequens quam Megara.
  The city of Segesta was not so large or so populous as Megara.
 Quamquam Cyrus rex et imperator erat magnus, erat etiam agricola et philosophus.
  Although Cyrus was a great king and commander, he was also a husbandman and philosopher.
 aedis, aedēs f., a temple.1
 fānum n., a temple.1
 templum n., a temple.1
 lībertas f., liberty.
 valētūdo f., health.
 ēducātio f., education.
 vulnus n., a wound.
 digitus n., the finger.
 tigris f., a tiger.
 pīnus f., a pine (tree).
 fraxinus f., an ash (tree).
 rosa f., a rose.
 poēma n., a poem.
 sacerdos c., a priest or priestess.
 fāma f., fame, reputation.
 caput n., the head, also a capital.
 lūdus m., play, sport.
 novitas f., newness, novelty.
 fons m., a fountain, a source.
 vallis f., a valley, a dale.
 vallum n., a trench, or ditch.
 campus m., a plain, a camp.
 lēgislātor m., a legislator.
 conjūrātus m., a conspirator.
 (1) Templum is a building specially dedicated to public worship; fanum properly a piece of consecrated ground, but is used metaphorically for any edifice that may be erected on such ground; aedis properly signifies that section of a building which contains the statue of the household god or goddess, and so answers in some respects to our word chapel, but it likewise stands for any building, and answers to structure or edifice, and is sometimes used instead of domus to express the place where one dwells, but in this last sense the plural form of the word only is used.
Is this your book or not?
  Est hic tuus liber necne?
Popilius was an ungrateful fellow.
  Popilius homo erat ingratus.
Where is Marcellus?
  Ubi Marcellus est?
A temple is a consecrated edifice.
  Templum aedificium consecratum est.
The chapel is lofty and spacious.
  Aedes alta est et ampla.
The palace is a magnificent structure.
  Curia aedes est splendida.
Formerly a timid man was never safe.
  Olim homo nunquam salvus erat timidus.
Every rich man is not liberal and munificent.
  Non omnis homo dives liberalis est et munificus.
The ditch is broad, but not deep.
  Vallum est latum sed non altum.
The valley is rugged and quite barren.
  Vallis est difficilis et omnino sterilis.
The plain is by no means so large as the forest.
  Campus minime tam magnus quam saltus est.
Robust health is a great blessing.
  Valetudo magnum est robusta bonum.
The wound is severe, but by no means dangerous.
  Vulnus est grave, sed minime periculosum.
No flower is so beautiful or so sweet as the rose.
  Nullus flos tam pulcher tamve suavis quam rosa.
Catilina was an atrocious and detestable conspirator.
  Catilina conjuratus atrox erat et infamis.
My neighbour is somewhat covetous, albeit a good citizen.
  Vicinus meus paulo est avarus, quamvis civis bonus.
No wild beast is so cruel and ferocious as the tiger.
  Nulla fera tam crudelis tamve ferox est quam tigris.
A good reputation is better than honour.
  Fama melior quam honor est bona.
The fountain was not far from where Syracuse now is.
  Fons fuit haud procul inde ubi Syracusae nunc sunt.
Solon was not only a great legislator, but also a just and humane man.
  Solon non modo legislator bonus fuit, sed etiam vir justus et humanus.
 dīco, I say, speak, or tell.
 dīcis, thou sayest, etc. or, you say, speak, or tell.
 dīcit, he says, speaks, or tells.
 dixi, I said, spoke, or told.
 dixisti, thou saidst, etc. or, you said, spoke, told.
 dixit, he said, spoke, or told.
 dīcitur, it is said, it is called.
 agitur, it is in danger.
 ēlicitur, it is struck out.
 vidētur, it seems, or appears.
 premit, it afflicts.
 venio, I come.
 venis, thou comest, or you come.
 venit, he comes.
 vēni, I came.
 vēnisti, thou camest, or you came.
 vēnit, he came.
 comedit, he eats.
 observat, he observes.
 latet, it lies hid.
 patet, it lies open.
 furit, it is raging.
 ardet, it is on fire.
 Me simulacrum esse dixisti.1
  You said that I was a spectre.
 Te simulacrum esse dixi.
  I said that you were a spectre.
 Se simulacrum esse dixit.
  He said that he was a spectre.
 Otium esse vitium puto.
  I think that idleness is a vice.
 Rex bellum esse necessarium putat.
  The king thinks that war is necessary.
 Consilium meum esse malum dixisti.
  You said that my advice was bad.
 Res tua agitur.
  Your property is in danger.
 Haec res tristis me premit.
  This sad affair afflicts me.
 Domus mea ardet.
  My house is on fire.
 Ventus saluber zephyrus est.
  The west is a salubrious wind.
 Marcellus dux erat peritus et amicus fidelis.
  Marcellus was a skilful general, and a faithful friend.
 Non omnis homo clarus, etiam pius est et honestus.
  Every illustrious man is not also pious and righteous.
 Uter est flos, qui hyacinthus dicitur?
  Which is the flower that is called a hyacinth?
 Filius unicus discipulus diligens esse dicitur tuus.
  Your only son is said to be a diligent scholar.
 Xantippe mulier valde iracunda fuisse dicitur.
  Xantippe is said to have been a very irascible woman.
 Fortasse mulier non fuit Xantippe tam iracunda quam fuisse dicitur.
  Perhaps Xantippe was not so irascible as she is said to have been.
 Auctor est celeber, sed liber ejus non est quoque laudandus.
  The author is celebrated, but his book is not also worthy of praise.
 Dolor acer adversarius esse videtur.
  Grief seems to be a bitter adversary.
 Cicero magnus ille orator et defensor audax, paulo timidus fuisse videtur.
  Cicero, that great orator and bold advocate, seems to have been nevertheless somewhat timid.
 (1) Me simulacrum esse dixisti, literally me a spectre to be you said, i.e. you said that I was a spectre. When the particle that can be turned into who or which, it is a relative pronoun; otherwise it is a conjunction equivalent to quod or ut. In English as well as Latin, the conjunction used under such circumstances may be dropped by putting the verb in the infinitive and the noun or pronoun in the accusative case, as he thinks himself to be for he thinks that he is. The Latin idiom is very partial to this construction, and it is often used when inadmissible in English, as dixit se esse, he said himself to be, for he said that he was; so, gaudeo te bene valere for gaudeo quod tu bene vales, I am glad (that) you are well. (See also Rem.(1) Lesson 50)
 mihi, to me, for me
 tibi, to thee, for you (sing.)
 nōbis, to us, for us.
 vōbis, to you (plu.), for you.
To you is rendered by tibi when a single person is reffered to, and by vobis when two or more persons are addressed. (See Rem. Lesson 38, Rem.(1) Lesson 106)
The paternal soil is dear to me.
  Paternum solum mihi est carum.
Your brother is very unfriendly to us.
  Frater tuus nobis valde inimicus est.
Is your country dear to you?
  Cara estne tibi patria?
I think that I am a spectre.
  Me simulacrum esse puto.
He thinks that he is a spectre.
  Se simulacrum esse putat.
The boy said that the ditch was broad.
  Puer vallum esse latum dixit.
I said that the wine was tart.
  Vinum asperum esse dixi.
The middle of the river is very deep.
  Medius fluvius valde altus est.
The whole of this book is very useful.
  Totus hic liber valde utilis est.
So much calumny is atrocious.
  Tanta calumnia atrox est.
What hour is it now?
  Quota hora nunc est?
A crafty man is never a trustworthy friend.
  Homo callidus nunquam amicus est certus.
An eloquent orator is not always a good counsellor.
  Orator facundus non semper bonus est monitor.
This is the bird, that is called a swallow.
  Haec avis est, quae hirundo dicitur.
Your master is said to be very severe.
  Dominus tuus valde severus esse dicitur.
Croesus is said to have been very rich.
  Croesus valde locuples fuisse dicitur.
The old man seems to be very frugal.
  Senex valde moderatus esse videtur.
The general seems to have been very expert.
  Dux valde peritus fuisse videtur.
Your king is not warlike, but he is prudent and acute.
  Rex vester non est bellicosus, prudens vero et acutus est.
No animal is so swift, sagacious and useful as the horse.
  Nullum animal tam est celere, sagax, et utile quam equus.
 Rōmānus -a -um, Roman.1
 Latinus -a -um, Latin.
 Graecus -a -um, Greek.
 Britannus -a -um, British.2
 Britannicus -a -um, British.2
 Anglicus -a -um, English.3
 Anglicānus -a -um, English.3
 Africus -a -um, African.
 Africānus -a -um, African.
 Gallicus -a -um, French.
 Indicus -a -um, Indian.
 Veneticus -a -um, Venetian.
 Scythicus -a -um, Scythian.
 Lydius -a -um, Lydian.
 Trōjānus -a -um, Trojan.
 Siciliānus -a -um, Sicilian.
 Syrācūsānus -a -um, Syracusian.
 Thēbānus -a -um, Theban.
 Germānus -a -um, German.
 Melitaeus -a -um, Maltese.
 Ephesius -a -um, Ephesian.
 Aegyptius -a -um, Egyptian.
 Athēniensis -a -um, Athenian.
 Carthāginiensis -a -um, Carthaginian.
 (1) Local adjective, that is, those that signify the nation or a person or object, are derived from the names of towns, and sometimes from the names of countries, as Romanus, Roman, from Roma, Rome; Latinus, Latin, from Latium, a country of ancient Italy. Names of towns or countries in -us generally form the adjective in -ius, as Aegyptus, Aegyptius; those in -a make -ānus, as Roma, Romānus; those in -ia, -ācus or -icus, as Gallia, Gallicus; many, however, make the adjective in -ensis, as Enna, Ennensis; and these terminations admit of being appended to other endings, as, Lacedaemon, Lacedaemonius; Charthago, Carthaginiensis.
 (2) Some names of countries have adjectives derived from them both in -ānus, -īnus, or -ācus, -īcus, as Siciliānus, or Siculus, Sicilian. The former of these forms is mostly used in speaking of men, and the latter in speaking of animals and inanimate objects, as Scipio Africanus, the African Scipio; leo Africus, the African lion; but urbs Siciliana, a Sicilian city.
 (3) Most local adjectives are used substantively, that is, Romanus stands for a Roman, as well as Roman, so Anglicus is either English or an Englishman. Sometimes, however, there is a distinct substantive to express individuals of a particular nation, in which case either the adjective or substantive may be used, as Brito sum, or Britannus sum, I am a Briton, but in some instances the noun is to be preferred, as Gallus sum (not Gallicus sum, I am a Frenchman. Some names of nations have more than one derivative to denote an inhabitant of the country; thus Scythia, (originally the country of the Crim Tartars, but afterwards the greater part of Northern Asia), has the derivative Scythicus, Scytha, and Scythes all signifying a Scythian, but tha last form, though used by the Roman writers, is properly a Greek word.
 Civis Romanus sum.
  I am a Roman citizen.
 Nonne tu es Africanus?
  You are an African, are you not?
 Cara nobis est patria.
  Our country is dear to us.
 Gratusne tibi est hic nuntius?
  Is this news agreeable to you?
 Unum verbum mihi sat est.
  One word is enough for me.
 Estne Siculus tibi molestus?
  Is the Sicilian troublesome to you?
 Veritas etiamsi jucunda non est, mihi tamen est grata.
  Truth, (even) though it is not gratifying, is agreeable to me.
 Brennus erat dux Gallicus.
  Brennus was a French general.
 Lupus fera Scythica ferox est.
  The fierce wolf is a Scythian wild beast.
 Chremes juvenis erat Syracusanus.
  Chremes was a Syracusan youth.
 Haec Lingua Anglica non est.
  This language is not English.
 Lingua Latina valde antiqua est.
  The Latin language is very ancient.
 Nulla lingua magis est grata quam Graeca.
  No language is finer than the Greek.
 Segesta urbs erat Siciliana.
  Segesta was a Sicilian city.
 Primus dictator Romanus vir fuit moderatus.
  The first Roman dictator was a well-disciplined man.
 Pelopidas vir patiens fuit et fortis.
  Pelopidas was a brave and patient man.
 Non formosus erat, sed erat facundus Ulysses.
  Ulysses was not handsome, but he was eloquent.
 Nullus flos tam suavis est quam rosa Melitaea.
  No flower is so sweet as the Maltese rose.
 Marcellus fuit otiosus nimis, bonus vero civis.
  Marcellus was too indolent, but he was a good citizen.
 Leo Africus non tam magnus est quam tigris Indica.
  The African lion is not so large as the Indian tiger.
 Quum Tarquinius exul erat, Roma adhuc urbs erat magna.
  When Tarquin was an exile, Rome was still a large city.
 Epaminondas dux Thebanus fuit inclytus, idem erat prudens, peritus, liberalis.
  Epaminondus was a Theban general of great renown; the same man was prudent, skilful, and enlightened.
 scrībo, I write, or do write.
 scrībis, thou writest, or dost write, you write, or do write.
 scrībit, he writes, or does write.
 scripsi, I wrote, or did write.
 scripsisti, thou wrotest, etc., you wrote, or did write.
 scripsit, he wrote, or did write.
Your are a Roman, are you not?
  Nonne tu Romanus es?
I am an English merchant.
  Mercator Anglicanus sum.
Does1 this book please you?
  Tene delectat hic liber?
This book does not please you, does it?
  Num te delectat hic liber?
This book please you, does it not?
  Nonne te delectat hic liber?
Does this book please you, or not?
  Anne te delectat hic liber?
Do you wish to restrain yourself?
  Tene cohibere vis?
What does the Indian want?
  Quid vult Indicus?
The African does not hear me.
  Non me audit Africanus.
Did you say that?
  Idne dixisti?
I did not say that.
  Non id dixi.
What did you say then?
  Quid tum dixisti?
You did not say that, did you?
  Num id dixisti?
Does the boy read?
  Legitne puer?
What does the boy read?
  Quid legit puer?
How much does the boy read daily?
  Quantum quotidie puer legit?
Does the boy read correctly?
  Legitne puer bene?
The boy reads correctly, does he not?
  Nonne legit puer bene?
The boy does not read correctly yet.
  Puer nondum bene legit.
Why do you think that?
  Quare id putas?
Does the Frenchman come every day?
  Quotidie Gallicus venit?
When does he come?
  Quando venit?
Why does he come?
  Cur venit?
How does he come?
  Qui venit?
When did the master come?
  Quando venit magister?
Why did he come?
  Cur venit?
 (1) Does this book please you? Tene delectat hic liber? The particles do, dost, does, and did, when used in English as auxiliaries are not expressed in Latin. A question may be put by simply using the interrogative pronoun with the verb, thus:─
  Cur scribis? Why do you write?
  Cur scripsisti? Why did you write?
So in negative sentences:─
  Non scribo, I do not write.
  Non scripsi, I did not write.
When no interrogative pronoun is used in a question, the particles ne, num, an, are generally used, under which circumstances they correspond in some degree with the English auxiliaries do and did, thus:─
  Scripsistine? Did you write?
  Num scripsisti? Did you write? or you did not write, did you?
  Nonne scripsisti? Did you write? or you did write, did you not?
  An scripsisti? Did you write? or whether did you write or not?
(See also Rem. Lesson 94)
 mōrōsus -a -um, morose, surly.
 praecipuus -a -um, principle, chief.
 opportūnus -a -um, opportune, timely.
 honōrātus -a -um, honoured, esteemed.
 laesus -a -um, wounded, wronged.
 occultus -a -um, hidden, secret.
 expertus -a -um, expert, skilful.
 blandus -a -um, bland, caressing.
 voluptarius -a -um, voluptuous.
 fluxus -a -um, flowing, mutable.
 mūtātus -a -um, changed, changeable.
 prāvus -a -um, crooked, depraved.
 vinctus -a -um, bound.
 remissus -a -um, remiss.
 festus -a -um, joyful.
 tardus -a -um, slow.
 candidus -a -um, white.
 saevus -a -um, pitiless.
 fortūnātus -a -um, fortunate.
 solidus -a -um, solid, firm.
 corruptus -a -um, corrupt.
 beneficus -a -um, benevolent.
 mūtus -a -um, silent, dumb.
 expectātus -a -um, expected.
 inhumātus -a -um, unburied.
 Alius sum, ille non sum.
  I am another, I am not that person.
 Raro scelestus1 est fortunatus.
  A wicked person is rarely fortunate.
 Dives non semper est honoratus.
  A rich man is not always esteemed.
 Sapiens nunquam est voluptarius.
  A wise man is never voluptuous.
 Saepe avarus est saevus.
  A covetous man is often pitiless.
 Omnis bonus est festus.
  Every good man is joyful.
 Plerumque aegrotus est morosus.
  An ailing man is generally surly.
 Durus non semper est corruptus.
  A niggardly fellow is not always corrupt.
 Muta valde pauper erat.
  The dumb woman was very poor.
 Mortuus valde beneficus erat.
  The dead person was very benevolent.
 Laesus non semper est mitis.
  An injured person is not always gentle.
 Popilius privatus erat non publicus.
  Popilius was a private person, not a public man.
 Omnis est utilis.
  Every (person) is useful.
 Omne2 quod scriptum est, non est verum.
  Every (thing) that is written is not true.
 Quis tam expertus quam frater meus?
  What person so expert as my brother?
 Quid tam fragile quam vitrum splendidum?3
  What thing so fragile as bright glass?
 Asinus animal docile est, paulo autem tardum.
  The ass is a docile creature, but somewhat slow.
 Quid putat rex?
  What does the king think?
 Quare id putat?
  Why does he think that?
 Quid nescit hic puer?
  What does this boy not know?
 Non me delectat hic nuntius.
  This news does not please me.
 Utrum hoc credis an non?
  Whether do you believe this or not?
 Satin' te plane video?
  Do I not see you plainly enough?
 Unus dies est festus, alter tristis.
  One day is joyful, another sad.
 Iphicrates quamquam remissus nimis, bonus tamen civis fuit.
  Although Iphicrates was too remiss, yet he was a good citizen.
 Syracusae urbs Siciliana non solum erat pulchra, sed etiam admodum ampla.
  Syracuse, the Sicilian city, was not only beautiful, but also very spacious.
 (1) Scelestus, a wicked person. In English, adjectives are used as plural substantives, thus the good, signifies good men; the rich, rich men, and so on. The English idiom, however, does not admit of adjectives being used for singular nouns; a good will not stand for a good man, neither will a rich stand for a rich man; but in Latin, singular adjectives are used in this way; bonus stands for either good or a good man; durus for harsh or for a niggardly man; and dura for harsh with a feminine noun, or alone for a niggardly woman; so the neuter durum stands for harsh with a neuter noun, or alone for niggardliness in general. (See Rem. Lesson 109) For this reason the nouns, man, woman, person, personage, individual, or fellow, when they stand after an adjective in English, are usually understood in Latin.
 (2) Omne, everything. The adjective omnis, when followed by a noun stands for all, but when alone, for every person or everything, according as the noun man or thing is understood. The word thing is very rarely expressed in Latin, except, when by using the adjective alone, it might be doubtful whether an animate or inanimate object is implied. Usually when thing is expressed the feminine moun res used, but when omitted, the adjective is put in the neuter to agree with negotium.
 aciēs f., a battle.1
 pugna f., a battle.1
 praelium, proelium n., a battle.1
 līberālitas f., generosity.
 justitia f., justice.
 potestas f., power.
 difficultas f., difficulty.
 voluntas f., the will.
 rāmus m., a branch.
 folium n., a leaf.
 mājestas f., majesty.
 dictātūra f., a dictatorship.
 nepos m., a grandson, also a spendthrift.
 gubernātor m., a pilot, a governor.
 turpitūdo f., dishonesty, guilt.
 egestas f., indigence, misfortune.
 infortūnium n., a mishap, misfortune.
 lucrum n., gain, profit.
 frīgus n., cold, chillness.
 sermo m., a discourse, advice.
 principium n., the beginning.
 forum n., a market-place.
 theātrum n., a theatre.
 (1) The English word battle is rendered by pugna when any contest is meant from a single combat to a general engagement, and by praelium, proelium, or acies, only when an encounter between two bodies of troops is implied. The nouns praelium and proelium are different orthographies of the same word, both answering to fight, strife, or armed contention. Pugna, besides battle, stands for combat, encounter, skirmish, fray. Acies properly means the sharp point or edge of anything, hence it signifies an army drawn out in battle array, and is used metaphorically in speaking of the engagement itself.
A wise man is never idle.
  Sapiens nunquam est otiosus.
A poor man is not always wretched.
  Pauper non semper est miser.
A wronged person is generally pitiless.
  Laesus plerumque est saevus.
A guilty man is never safe.
  Scelestus nunquam est tutus.
A sickly person is often surly.
  Aegrotus saepe morosus est.
A highwayman is generally a daring rascal.
  Latro plerumque audens est.
The dead woman was a good mother.
  Mortua mater fuit bona.
Chremes was a private individual, not a public man.
  Chremes privatus fuit non publicus.
That is not the same thing, it is another.
  Illud non est idem, aliud est.
What else is it then?
  Quid tum est aliud?
Indigence is a great evil.
  Egestas magnum est malum.
The combat is said to be fierce.
  Pugna vehemens esse dicitur.
Fierce strife is a ferocious thing.
  Res est ferox praelium vehemens.
Nothing human is so grand or so terrible as a great battle.
  Nihil humanum est tam grande, tamve formidolosum quam pugna magna.
Prudence is a sagacious virtue.
  Virtus prudentia est sagax.
One pilot is skilful and fortunate, but another unskilful and unfortunate.
  Unus gubernator peritus est et felix, alter vero imperitus et infelix.
Dishonesty is an abject vice.
  Vitium infame turpitudo est.
Generosity is not so praiseworthy as justice.
  Liberalitas non tam laudanda est quam justitia.
Cold, albeit unpleasant, is nevertheless wholesome.
  Frigus quamvis molestum, tamen est sanum.
The theatre is a stately and very spacious building.
  Theatrum aedificium est excelsum et admodum amplum.
What young man so prudent and so industrious as my grandson?
  Quis tam industrius tamve diligens juvenis est ut nepos meus?
 dēbeo, I should, ought, must.1
 dēbēs, thou shouldst, oughtest, must, or you should, ought, must.
 dēbet, he should, ought, must.
 possum, I may, can, or am able.
 potes, thou mayest, canst, art able, or you may, can, or are able.
 potest, he may, can, or is able.
 Discere debeo.1
  I must learn.
 Docere debes.
  You must teach.
 Dicere debet.
  He must speak.
 Possum laetus esse.
  I may be merry.
 Hilaris esse potes.
  You may be mirthful.
 Jucundus esse potest.
  He may be joyful.
 Potesne legere?
  Can you read?
 Num potes legere?
  You cannot read, can you?
 Nonne potes legere?
  You can read, can you not?
 An potes legere?
  Can you read, or not?
 Deus non potest errare.
  God cannot err.
 Omnis homo discere debet.
  Every man ought to learn.
 Possum semper beatus esse, si volo.
  I may always be happy, if I choose.
 Vir fidelis esse et honestus debet.
  A man ought to be faithful and honourable.
 Nemo qui piger est, felix esse potest.
  No one who is lazy can be fortunate.
 Piger igitur discipulus felix esse non potest.
  Therefore a lazy pupil cannot be fortunate.
 Homo sum, humanus igitur esse debeo.
  I am a man, I ought therefore to be humane.
 Omnis rex lenis et clemens esse debet.
  Every king ought to be merciful and clement.
 Rex qui non est lenis, felix esse non potest.
  A king who is not lenient cannot be happy.
 Si vis beatus esse, honestus esse debes.
  If you desire to be happy, you must be righteous.
 Tu beatus esse potes, si vis esse honestus.
  You may be happy, if you will be righteous.
 Discipulus discere debet, magister docere.
  The pupil ought to learn, the teacher to teach.
 Omnis praeceptor fideliter docere debet.
  Every teacher ought to teach faithfully.
 Qui non vult docere, non potest esse praeceptor.
  He who does not desire to teach, cannot be a teacher.
 Quum hoc non possum, illud minus possum.
  As I cannot (do) this, I can (much) less (do) that.
 Amicitia immortalis, inimicitia mortalis esse debet.
  Friendship ought to be immortal, enmity mortal.
 (1) The verbs should, ought, and must, when auxiliaries, are sometimes rendered by the participle in -dus. (See Rem. Lesson 102)
 (2) Discere debeo, I should, must, or ought to learn. In English the particle to is dropped after may, can, should and must, but it is retained after ought; in Latin the infinitive mood, which expresses to, is used after the equivalents of all these verbs.