Every sentence contains one or more propositions.


 A proposition consists of three parts — the subject, the predicate, and the copula.
 a. The subject is the person or object spoken of; thus, in "man is mortal," the word man is the subject of the proposition.
 b. The predicate is that which is said of the subject, consequently in the preceding proposition the word mortal is the predicate.
 c. The copula is the word which connects the subject and predicate, consequently in the proposition "man is mortal," the word man is the subject, mortal the predicate, and is the copula.
 d. The predicate may be a substantive or a verb, as well as an adjective, to which other words required by the sense may be added, as "Alexander was a great general."
 e. The simple copula is one or other of the forms of the verb to be, but may also be any other verb, as "that boy seems diligent."
 f. Sometimes, however, when the form of a verb other than to be is used, it contains both copula and predicate; thus, in "Alexander conquers," the verb conquers is both copula and predicate, the proposition being equivalent to " Alexander is a conqueror."'
 Every sentence may be thus divided, even an interrogation is only an inverted proposition, the predicate of which is doubtful or unknown; thus, "who is he?" is equivalent to "he is, who?" Here the subject is he, the copula is, and the predicate some person understood as referred to by the relative who.


 When the copula and predicate is a simple verb, it must have a subject or nominative, and may have a direct and indirect object.
 a. The direct object is the person or thing immediately affected by the verb, as "the king gives laws."
 b. The indirect object is the person or thing for which the action is performed, or towards which it is directed, as "the king gives laws to the state."
 c. Both the direct and indirect object of a verb may be a dependent proposition, as "the king says, that he gives laws to the state;" "the boy told me, that he would come." In the last sentence me is the direct, and the dependent proposition, the indirect object of the verb told.


 Two or more nominative cases singular require a verb in the plural, as puer et frater negotiosi sunt, the boy and his brother are industrious.
 (1) Sometimes, however, the verb is made to agree with the last of the two nonns, especially when things without life are in question, as tempus necessitasque postulat, time and necessity demands it (not demand.) (See also Rem.(2) Lesson 133, First Course.)
 (2) So when a verb has for subject two nouns coupled with a conjunction, and for predicate one noun in the singular only, it is often made to agree with the latter, as ─ Sapientia et honestas Socratis causa mortis erat ejus, the wisdom and uprightness of Socrates was (not were) the cause of his death. This is equivalent to the English locution, "the wages of sin is death;" and though this construction frequently occurs in Latin, it is nevertheless better to make the verb agree with the subject rather than with the predicate.


 When the nominatives are of different persons, the verb agrees with the first in preference to the second, and with the second in preference to the third, as ego et tu sumus in tuto, you and I are in safely, here the verb is in the first, person, to agree with ego.
 Sometimes, however, the verb is made to agree with the person that immediately precedes, as vos ipsi et senatus me monet, you yourselves, and the senate advises me.


 As in English, a collective or noun of multitude may have a verb in the plural, as pars boni sunt, a part (of them) are good; uterque luduntur dolis, both are deceived by tricks.